- A diverse religion with adherents in most countries. Buddhist leaders have sometimes opposed shamans and shamanism, for example, in Mongolia, but never entirely successfully. In most encounters between Buddhists and those who may be considered shamans, both groups and traditions have evolved under the influence of the other. Tantric Buddhism is sometimes said to gain its ecstatic and trance practices (somewhat distinct from meditation) from shamanism. Similarly, exorcisms within Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism are sometimes alleged to derive from pre-Buddhist shamanism. It has also been argued that Bön-po is a shamanic religion separate from Buddhism.
Historical dictionary of shamanism. Graham Harvey and Robert J. Wallis. 2007.
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