- Among some, but far from all, societies that employ shamans, the cosmos is understood to be layered, often in three levels: an upper world, middle world, and underworld. Ordinary humans live entirely in the middle world, unless their souls are taken by otherworld persons or spirits. Shamans work in all three worlds, mediating between their communities and other-than-human persons of many kinds, including animals. Neo-shamans often conceive of these other worlds as inner (psychological) and imaginal realms requiring Jungian-style therapeutic and individuated interpretations.
Historical dictionary of shamanism. Graham Harvey and Robert J. Wallis. 2007.
Look at other dictionaries:
Introduction — There are shamans who may be able to heal, and others who may be successful at controlling game animals. Some shamans alter consciousness or use trance, others shape shift and journey to other worlds. Some mediate between their communities and … Historical dictionary of shamanism
Cosmology — Shamans and their communities usually share a cosmology, a view of the world, that includes an understanding of both how everything works and how it began. Generally, shamanic cosmologies are animist, although neo shamanism’s modernist… … Historical dictionary of shamanism
Akhirah — ( ar. الآخرة) is an Islamic term referring to the afterlife. It is repeatedly referenced in chapters of the Qur an concerning Yaum al Qiyamah, the Islamic Day of Judgment, an important part of Islamic eschatology. Traditionally, it is considered… … Wikipedia
San religion — The religion of the San people, or Bushmen, of southern Africa consists of a spirit world and our material world. To enter the spirit world, trancing has to be initiated by a shaman through the hunting of power animals. The trance dance eland… … Wikipedia
Altai — The Altai Kizhi, Telengits, Teles, and Teleuts are pastoralists of mixed Turkic Mongolian descent. After the great changes brought by Russian colonization in the 18th century, there arose shamans who, not bound to traditional clan structure,… … Historical dictionary of shamanism
Sakha — Sakha may refer to peoples known as the Sakha (formerly Yakut) living in the Sakha region (Yakutia) in northeast Siberia; the Sakha language, which belongs to the Turkic family of languages; or the Sakha Republic, the largest independent… … Historical dictionary of shamanism
Southeast Asian arts — Literary, performing, and visual arts of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. The classical literatures of Southeast Asia can be divided into three major regions: the Sanskrit region of… … Universalium
Old Trafford — This article is about the home of Manchester United F.C. For the cricket ground, see Old Trafford Cricket Ground. For other uses, see Old Trafford (disambiguation). Old Trafford Theatre of Dreams … Wikipedia
Europe, history of — Introduction history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.… … Universalium
eschatology — eschatological /es keuh tl oj i keuhl, e skat l /, adj. eschatologically, adv. eschatologist, n. /es keuh tol euh jee/, n. Theol. 1. any system of doctrines concerning last, or final, matters, as death, the Judgment, the future state, etc. 2. the … Universalium