Beginning as a spiritualist movement called Spiritism, founded by the self-named Allan Kardec in France in the mid-19th century, but reaching its most popular contemporary form in Brazil, Kardecism now blends European-derived Christian esoteric and spiritualist traditions with African (e.g., Umbanda) and indigenous Amazonian traditions. Following group singing and drumming, individuals become possessed and are spoken through by spirits who advise and instruct the group or clients. The movement stresses moral and charitable lifestyles and practices, insisting that liberation is not only spiritual but also social and practical.

Historical dictionary of shamanism. . 2007.

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  • Spiritism — is a Christian [ [http://www.ecrealty.net/kar/tview02.htm Spiritist Center of Orlando] ] philosophical doctrine, established in France in the mid nineteenth century.Spiritism, or French spiritualism, is based on books written by French educator… …   Wikipedia

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  • What is Spiritism? — ( Qu Est ce Que le Spiritisme in French) is a brief introduction to Spiritism written by Allan Kardec in 1859, which is about a quarter of the length of The Spirits Book. Modern editions are augmented by a brief biography of the author, written… …   Wikipedia

  • History of Spiritism — Spiritism was founded by Allan Kardec in France in the middle of the 19th century, influenced by Franz Mesmer, the Fox sisters and the popularity of table turning séances in his time. He did not claim that his doctrine was entirely new, but… …   Wikipedia

  • List of modern channelled texts — Part of a series on Spiritualism Spirit · Sp …   Wikipedia

  • Chronology —    Shamanism is sometimes said to be the earliest religion, the original religion. In fact, there is no evidence that could prove or disprove such a claim. To the contrary, it is certainly the case that every shaman living today utilizes skills… …   Historical dictionary of shamanism

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