- An evolution of Amazonian shamanism (particularly in the eastern highlands) influenced by Christian missionary discourse (e.g., prophetic promises of a new life, a path to creative powers or “God,” and access to new healing cures and powerful chants) that began in the late 19th century in the Guyana highlands. Its name derives from the use of various Christian words and phrases in ritual chants, songs, and dances. Neil Whitehead discusses the rise of this apocalyptic practice in relation to indigenous attempts to deal with the impact of new illnesses like smallpox following colonization and the influx of new cultural, political, and social situations and technologies. In particular, he notes that alleluia’san (practitioners who perform this style of shamanism, especially by singing and chanting) oppose “dark shamans” or kanaimà’san and in the process almost marginalize piya shamans (even though their chief healing role would seem to be required).
Historical dictionary of shamanism. Graham Harvey and Robert J. Wallis. 2007.
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Chronology — Shamanism is sometimes said to be the earliest religion, the original religion. In fact, there is no evidence that could prove or disprove such a claim. To the contrary, it is certainly the case that every shaman living today utilizes skills… … Historical dictionary of shamanism
Dark shamans — A distinction is commonly drawn in Amazonia between “curing shamans” and “dark shamans.” This should not be interpreted, however, as “our shamans” versus “enemy shamans” because all shamans may potentially act against their family and… … Historical dictionary of shamanism
Piya — Various similar and related words in diverse Amazonian languages refer to the kind of shamans who have the ability to heal illnesses or commit violence (predation). In some languages (e.g., that of the Wayapí discussed by Alan Campbell),… … Historical dictionary of shamanism
theatre, Western — ▪ art Introduction history of the Western theatre from its origins in pre Classical antiquity to the present. For a discussion of drama as a literary form, see dramatic literature and the articles on individual national literatures.… … Universalium