Bibliography
   As the scope of the dictionary entries and extent of this bibliography make clear, there is a huge range of literature on shamans, from introductory works, general discussions on such topics as definition, and culture-specific ethnographic works on shamans and their communities across all continents, to “how-to” neo-shaman manuals and psychological analyses. This bibliography is divided into sections loosely based around the geographical regions engaged within the dictionary itself, as well as a number of key themes, but as a matter of course these sections should not be seen as definitive. A “global” approach might risk homogenizing shamans in the specified regions, especially when considering that shamanisms in Africa or Siberia, among other areas, are so vast and so diverse. Nonetheless, while any breakdown of a bibliography into sections risks such metanarrative, a regional approach, at the very least, evinces some of the variety of shamanisms and represents the way in which shamans have been identified in many cultures across the globe.
   In addition to these regional sections, the sections on introductory works and general discussions offer examples of some accessible and sometimes classic works on shamans to readers unfamiliar with the topic. While it would be unwieldy to break the bibliography down further into all the themes mentioned in the dictionary entries, there are sections on the key themes of performance, gender, altered consciousness, rock art, neo-shamans, and animism, all of which are, arguably, at the cutting edge of current research. It is important to note not only that shamanism is a construct applied globally but also that the process of globalization has itself had a significant impact on shamanism, no less given the interest of neo-shamans in indigenous and prehistoric cultures, and the accessibility afforded to these and other researchers by the internet as well as shamanism tourism. Inevitably, then, some works are duplicated in more than one section in order, for instance, to connect them with both a theme and a region. The remainder of this introduction to the bibliography briefly orients readers on its structure, pointing to important authors, their works, and key themes and offering critical analysis of the literature where relevant.
   INTRODUCTORY WORKS AND GENERAL DISCUSSIONS
   A section each on introductory works and more general discussion provides readers unfamiliar with shamanism with an entry point as well as an overall insight into research into the topic. Introductory works tend to be of two types: volumes written by scholars with material aimed at the general reader, and books by neo-shamanic practitioners offering general information alongside instructions for contemporary practice. With such a diversity of shamanistic practices worldwide, those in the former category often risk stripping away what makes each shaman in context so different from another, in order to present a singular “shamanism.” For example, although Mircea Eliade’s major volume Shamanism (1964 [1951]) describes a huge variety of shamanic practices, in the end it tells us more about Eliade’s preoccupation with shamanism as an archaic religion originating in the locus classicus of Central Asia and Siberia than it does about shamans themselves. Other authors have tended to reify Eliade’s singular, monolithic, and archaic “shamanism” (e.g., Lommel 1967, Harner 1990 [1980]), despite numerous revisions of this problematic approach. Other recent overviews of shamanism often take one particular approach to shamans—usually the shaman as a healer (e.g., Halifax 1982, Villoldo and Krippner 1986, Krippner and Welch 1992, McClennon 1997) or a master of altered states of consciousness (e.g., Walsh 1990)—once again overgeneralizing what shamanism is. These books serve an important purpose in representing the variety of interpretations scholars bring to the subject, but they should not be seen as stand-alone authoritative or definitive works. Other books, specifically written as introductions to the subject, must be approached with greater caution. Margaret Stutley’s Shamanism: An Introduction (2003), for instance, despite its recent publication, neglects recent theorizing of the subject and generalizes what shamanism is, in the end reifying Eliade’s metanarrative of shamanism as an “ur-religion.” Of course, it is difficult to avoid generalizing when attempting to introduce a subject as diverse as shamanism, but other introductions go some way to achieving this, such as Piers Vitebsky’s The Shaman (1995). Other volumes, rather than attempting to introduce shamanism in its entirety, choose, perhaps more appropriately, to offer a reader on the subject, such as Graham Harvey’s Shamanism: A Reader (2003). Just as caution is required when approaching any volume that claims to represent an introduction to shamanism, such critical engagement is in order with regard to introductory manuals written by contemporary Western practitioners, or “neo-shamans.” The classic work in this area, perhaps the neo-shamanic equivalent of Eliade, is Michael Harner’s manual The Way of the Shaman (1990 [1980]). However, Harner’s “core shamanism” should not be seen as a valuefree, objective concept, but rather as a construct that draws on Eliade’s understanding that the shamanic “journey” to other worlds is a definitive feature of shamanism. In addition, core shamanism strips away cultural nuance to provide a technique Westerners can more readily consume. Yet journeying is not universal to all shamans, and cultural specificity is crucial to understanding what shamans do and why they do it. One exceptional neo-shamanic work, Gordon MacLellan’s Shamanism (1999), does not claim to represent shamanism in its entirety but focuses on other important components of shamanism, especially the role of shamans in their communities as people who negotiate harmonious relations between human people and other-than-human people. Since books like MacLellan’s blur the boundary between what might otherwise be too easily dichotomized as “shamans” and “neo-shamans,” they are included alongside other introductions and general works as well as in the section listing neoshamanic works and studies on neo-shamans.
   The vast majority of literature on shamans consists of culture-specific ethnographies of shamans, from shorter articles to extensive volumes, with some in multiple volumes and perhaps covering the lifetime of a particular ethnographer who worked with one shamanistic community. Rather than offer a section of ethnographic works, readers will find ethnographies on shamans scattered throughout the regional and thematic sections, as well as the section on general discussions. A short word here on especially significant volumes of an ethnographic nature, then, is in order, especially since these works cover at least 300 years of discourse on shamans so that, interestingly and importantly, a book always speaks of the era in which it was written.
   Sergei Shirokogoroff’s classic Psychomental Complex of the Tungus (1935), for example, stands out for revising the notion that shamans are psychotic, preferring instead to see shamans as accomplished masters of the spirits and/or the altered conscious states with which they engage. But at the same time as attempting to more positively represent these shamans, it might be argued that Shirokogoroff also stereotyped them in another way, distancing practices involving possession states in which shamans lose control (i.e., “possession”) or mediate spirits (i.e., “mediumship”). Regarding the latter, Vitebsky’s ethnography of the Sora attends to people he defines as shamans who do indeed mediate spirits of the dead. Vitebsky has also, more recently, written an extensive and accessible ethnography on the northeast Siberian Eveny, The Reindeer People: Living with Animals and Spirits in Siberia (2005), paying special attention to shamanism since the Russian Revolution. Addressing this theme, along with Siberian shamanism in Western discourse, is Ronald Hutton’s volume Shamans: Siberian Spirituality and the Western Imagination (2001), a theme taken up earlier by Gloria Flaherty in her important work Shamanism and the Eighteenth Century (1992). While neither of these two books is an ethnographic work as such, they are crucial reading (in English) for understanding Siberian shamanism and its reception and subsequent influence in the West. Caroline Humphrey’s work with Urgunge Onon, Shamans and Elders (1996), also stands out—not only for being a collaborative work with an indigenous practitioner but also for repositioning the shaman (in Mongolia) as a social player rather than focusing on altered consciousness or shamans as religious specialists separate from daily life. In a similar vein, Michael Taussig’s volume Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing (1987) also situates shamans in the Colombian Putomayo in the social arena as active agents negotiating the colonial encounter. Taussig also addresses the tension inherent in, and unstructured nature of, shamanic performance, wherein the outcome may be unpredictable, thereby disrupting perceived notions of shamanism as universally benevolent and successful, and shamans themselves as consistently “in control.”
   Finally in this section, considering the prevalence of Western interests in indigenous shamans, especially direct encounters between shamans and neoshamans— both at the positive, creative interface and in neocolonial situations— it is important for scholars to analyze these contemporary expressions. Only rarely is this the case in traditional ethnographies, where what is perceived to be the “authentic” indigenous tradition is accentuated over what is new and allegedly inauthentic and intrusive. But it is worth noting that there have been a few ethnographic comments on neo-shamans, including Merete Demant Jakobsen’s (1999) contrasting of practices among the Greenlandic angakkoq and core shamanists. Jenny Blain’s Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic (2002) provides a detailed theorization of contemporary Heathen reconstructions of seidr vis-à-vis ancient North European shamanism, a topic also taken up by Galina Lindquist (1997) with reference to urban Sweden and by Robert Wallis in Shamans/Neo-Shamans (2003). Wallis examines seidr alongside “Celtic shamanism” (past and present) and neo-shamanic appropriations of Native American spirituality. Along with a variety of papers commenting on the indigenous/ neo-shamanic interface (e.g., Clifton 1989, Joralemon 1990, Rose 1992, Geertz 1993, Smith 1994, Johnson 1995, Hoppál 1996, Harvey 1998, Wallis 2000, Townsend 2005), this work indicates that in the “global village” it is imperative to critically theorize the permeability of boundaries between what might once have been rigidly and misleadingly defined as either “indigenous” (authentic/valid) or “new” (inauthentic/invalid). As the ethnographic works mentioned above attest, the complexities of shamanism worldwide have been a rich source for anthropological and archaeological theorizing. The remaining sections introduce this work.
   PERFORMANCE
   Shamans are performers in that they may conduct or lead public and dramatic events, ceremonies, or rituals. A number of scholars have studied shamanic practices, and rituals in particular, as a form of performance (e.g., Balzer 1995, Csordas 1996, Bogoras 1972 [1958], Laderman 1991, Lindquist 1997, Schieffelin 1996, 1998), with the positive assertion that shamans and their communities (of human and other-than-human people) are active agents in the success of the rite. There is a risk that such analyses focus on the externally observed acts of rituals at the expense of internal understandings or knowledge, psychological processes, or the “reality” of encountering spirits. Early travelers and ethnographers often focused on shamans’ tricks such as ventriloquism and juggling and concluded that everything shamans did must therefore be a sham. Neoshamanic author Jonathan Horwitz (1995) has criticized the recent redefinition of shamans as performers as dismissive of the efficacy of shamanic experience, with the logical comparison of shamanic séances with role-play or the acting out of a play on a stage. While shamans do often deploy acting abilities and trickery in their work, though not necessarily in order to deceive clients or audiences, Blain and Wallis (drawing on Csordas 1996 and Schieffelin 1996, 1998) have recently argued (2006a) that the recognition of shamanic ritual as the “active accomplishment of meaning” embraces the creative, agentic nature of performance and the power of practice of all performers involved—including “spirits.”
   GENDER
   Just as gender issues have been at the forefront of anthropological and related research in the humanities and social sciences in recent decades, so shamanism studies have also benefited from the theoretical positioning offered by feminism, gender studies, and queer theory. The issue is far more complex than identifying a preponderance of male shamans in one community (e.g., Siberia) and women shamans in another (e.g., Korea), with gender indicative of status, authority, and ability. Nor is the issue a simple matter of identifying homosexual activity or cross-dressing among shamans. Early literature on shamans, sex, and gender assumed that instances of cross-dressing were indicative of transvestitism, homosexuality, or bisexuality. Such colonial narratives, in line with other Western stereotypes, misleadingly equated the representation of gender as being synonymous with sexual preference. More nuanced analysis has approached shamans traversing both male and female genders or adopting third, fourth, or even multiple genders. Maria Czaplicka (1914) and Marjorie Balzer (1996b) have written about the way in which many Siberian shamans embody a “third class” or gender that may mediate between other persons. Further, Bernard Saladin d’Anglure (1990) notes that a binary model (opposing male and female genders) is insufficient for engaging sensitively with multiple genders among shamans: his “ternary” model offers a more fluid or dynamic perception of gender.
   Such comments have challenged the Western binary “male or female” requirement, in which sex and gender are usually synonymous and heterosexuality is presumed to be normative. Far from being universal, these categories are disrupted by shamans who may embody a third or other multiple gender—without reference to sexuality. Other shamans contravene Western dichotomies further, by engaging in heterosexual family life in the “real” world while simultaneously being “married” to a helper of the same sex in the “spirit” world, or vice versa. While the addition of the suffix -ka to represent women shamans as shamanka serves principally to reify normative Western dichotomies of gender among some neo-shamans (e.g., Matthews 1995), indigenous discourses often offer creative and empowering precedents for other practitioners. For instance, both gay and heterosexual seidr practitioners in Heathenry engage with the concept of ergi from ancient sources in order to understand and negotiate their identities in the present (e.g., Blain and Wallis 2000).
   ALTERED CONSCIOUSNESS
   Ascribing trance, altered states of consciousness, and related terms to shamanic practices has become de rigueur to the point that these terms are almost synonymous with shamans in some of the literature. Harner’s (1990 [1980]) idea of a “shamanic state of consciousness” marks a good example, not only making altered states inseparable from shamanism but also privileging an alleged shamanic state from others—indeed, harking back to Shirokogoroff’s (1935) view that shamans are able to control their spirits and altered states of consciousness while other engagements with spirits (i.e., possession and mediumship) do not. The vast literature on shamans and related practices from which this bibliography selects indicates that such an emphasis on one specific altered state of consciousness is too restrictive. Returning to Vitebsky’s (1993) ethnography on the Sora who mediate spirits, or attending to the possession practices in Vodou, a more nuanced term might be altered consciousness (see Blain and Wallis 2006a). Moreover, while to Western eyes altered consciousness appears to be in play during many shamanic practices, it must be remembered that such terminology is specific to the compartmentalizing attitude of the West: many shamans themselves will not use this nomenclature, preferring instead to speak of other worlds, spirits, and other-than-human persons who enable them to negotiate harmony in their everyday community setting. It is important to be sensitive to shamans’ own understandings since the overuse of such terms as altered states of consciousness risks a psychologizing process, as some scholars focus on the neuropsychology— even neurotheology—at the expense of what it is that shamans do in their communities (e.g., Winkelman 2000). Roberte Hamayon (e.g., 1993, 1996, 1998), in notable contrast, argues that, in Siberia, the “marriage” between shamans and their helpers is more significant in understanding what these shamans do than the “ecstasy,” “mastery of spirits,” or “journeying” emphasized by other scholars.
   ROCK ART
   The association between rock art and shamanism is enduring, with the “sorcerer” in the cave of Les Trois Freres in the Dordogne, France, often being cited as a Paleolithic shaman. Such an association is exaggerated by the perception that shamanism is humanity’s oldest religion (e.g., Riches 1994, RipinskyNaxon 1993, McClennon 1997) and that cave art marks the origin of art (e.g., Lommel 1967). This, alongside recent theorizing of a shamanistic interpretation of rock art in an extensive body of literature, indicates that a separate section of the bibliography on rock art is pertinent.
   As the dictionary entry suggests, it is important to consider that the recent shamanistic interpretation of rock art has prompted much debate, with the emotive terms shamaniac and shamanophobe being exchanged between scholars. After David Lewis-Williams and Thomas Dowson (1988) made the initial suggestion of a neuropsychological model for interpreting Southern African rock art and Upper Paleolithic cave art, many rock art scholars applied the model to other traditions across the globe (e.g., Sales 1992, Whitley 1992, Dronfield 1996, Bradley 1997, Patterson 1998). Overall, this risked the shamanistic interpretation becoming a metanarrative, as various commentators argued (e.g., Bahn 1998, Solomon 2000). In response, Lewis-Williams and Dowson and other scholars (e.g., Wallis 2002) have refined the shamanistic approach with a sensitive understanding of shamanism as diverse and culturally nuanced. The latest development involves the sophisticated deployment of animism by Dowson, offering a broader frame within which to interpret shamans and rock art in community contexts.
   NEO-SHAMANS
   Scholars are often quick to make a distinction between what is indigenous or prehistoric and what is an appropriation of these traditions by Westerners—that is, “neo-shamanism.” In instances where there is cultural theft, such a distinction is apt (e.g., Geertz 1993, Hobson 1978, Johnson 1995, Kehoe 1990, Wallis 2003). For example, some neo-shamans, New Agers, Pagans, and others (e.g., Storm 1972, Hungry Wolf 1973) have ignored Native American objections and protests (e.g., Green 1988, Rose 1992, Smith 1994). However, while there are differences between some neo-shamanisms and some indigenous shamanisms, as well as differences between particular indigenous shamanisms, it is misleading to exaggerate these differences into some supposedly definitive statement—especially one embroiled in notions of authenticity. In offering a section of the bibliography on neo-shamans, the intention is not to distance contemporary Western practices from other shamanisms or to indicate that indigenous shamanisms are pristine and authentic, uninfluenced by the West, including by neo-shamans. Rather, this section offers readers examples of literature on neo-shamans by scholars, and key works by neo-shamans on shamanism, in an effort to represent the diversity of neo-shamanisms and the interface between neo-shamanisms, indigenous shamanisms, and prehistoric shamanisms.
   ANIMISM
   If studies on shamans always tend to reflect current discourses in academe, then at the time of writing, one of the most significant developments has been the theorization of “animism” and its contribution to our understanding of shamans. In the 19th century, Edward Tylor defined animism (what would now be termed “old animism”) as “the belief in spirits.” He presented this as the essence of religion and alleged that “primitive” people made a mistake in believing in “spirits.” The concept has been revisited by Nurit Bird-David (e.g., 1993, 1999), Eduardo Viveiros de Castro (e.g., 1992, 1998, 1999), Signe Howell (e.g., 1984, 1989), Graham Harvey (2005), and others who offer a “new animism”: animism as a relational ontology, the recognition that the world is full of persons, only some of whom are human. Shamans act as mediators in order to broker harmonious relations between human and other-than-human people. Harvey (2005) has argued that animism makes shamans both possible and necessary because their roles are about dealing with the problems of living in a relational world. Carlos Fausto (e.g., 2004), furthermore, points to the darker side of animism in the Amazon: in a living world where warfare and hunting are preferred means of affirming one’s agency and intentionality, rather than being used or preyed upon by other persons, shamans interact relationally with powerful other-than-human persons, especially jaguars—resulting in “a predatory animism.”
   Just as neo-shamans have engaged with scholarship on shamans with regard to gender, postcolonial critiques, and performance, so new animism has become a resource for identity formation, and Blain and Wallis have termed Pagan practitioners engaging with “living landscapes” as “new/indigenes” (2002, 2006b). New animism offers a critically engaged methodology for examining indigenous realities and moves analysis beyond the rather paradigm-restrictive “shamanistic communities,” which assumes that the worldview of the community at issue is “shamanistic” and that shamans are the most important persons in such communities. In contrast, animism situates shamans (and all human people) within a wider network or web of relationships with other-than-human people, which are dynamic, relational, and creatively agentic.
INTRODUCTORY WORKS
♦ Eliade, Mircea. 1964 [1951]. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. New York: Pantheon.
♦ Flaherty, Gloria. 1992. Shamanism and the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
♦ Halifax, Joan. 1979. Shamanic Voices: A Survey of Visionary Narratives. London: Arkana.
♦ ---—. 1982. Shaman: The Wounded Healer. London: Thames and Hudson.
♦ Harvey, Graham, ed. 2000. Indigenous Religions: A Companion. London: Cassell.
♦ ———, ed. 2002. Readings in Indigenous Religions. London: Continuum.
♦ ———, ed. 2003. Shamanism: A Reader. London: Routledge.
♦ ----. 2005. Animism: Respecting the Living World. London: Hurst; New York: Columbia University Press; Adelaide: Wakefield Press.
♦ Hoppál, Mihály, ed. 1984. Shamanism in Eurasia. Göttingen: Edition Herodot.
♦ Hutton, Ronald. 1993. The Shamans of Siberia. Glastonbury, Somerset: Isle of Avalon Press.
♦ --- 2002. Shamans: Siberian Spirituality and the Western Imagination. London: Hambledon.
♦ Lewis, Ioan M. 1989. Ecstatic Religion: A Study of Shamanism and Spirit Possession. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
♦ MacLellan, Gordon. 1999. Shamanism. London: Piatkus.
♦ Price, Neil S., ed. 2001. The Archaeology of Shamanism. London: Routledge.
♦ Ripinsky-Naxon, Michael. 1993. The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor. Albany: State University of New York Press.
♦ Stutley, Margaret. 2003. Shamanism: An Introduction. London: Routledge. Thomas, Nicholas, and Caroline Humphrey, eds. 1994. Shamanism, History, and the State. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
♦ Vitebsky, Piers. 1995. The Shaman. London: Macmillan.
♦ Wallis, Robert J. 2003. Shamans/Neo-Shamans: Ecstasy, Alternative Archaeology and Contemporary Pagans. London: Routledge.
♦ Walsh, Roger N. 1990. The Spirit of Shamanism. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher.
GENERAL DISCUSSIONS
♦ Abram, David. 1997. Spell of the Sensuous. New York: Vintage Books. ۞ Achterberg, Jeanne. 1985. Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ ----. 1991 Woman As Healer. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ Adamec, Ludwig W. 2001. Historical Dictionary of Islam. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
♦ Allegro, John. 1970. The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
♦ Atkinson, Jane M. 1992. “Shamanisms Today.” Annual Review of Anthropology 21:307–30.
♦ Bailey, Michael. 2003. Historical Dictionary of Witchcraft. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
♦ Blain, Jenny, and Robert J. Wallis. 2006a. “Ritual Reflections, Practitioner Meanings: Disputing the Terminology of Neo-Shamanic ‘Performance.’” Journal of Ritual Studies 20 (1): 21–36.
♦ Boas, Franz. 1955. Primitive Art. New York: Dover.
♦ Bourguignon, Erika. 1976. Possession. San Francisco: Chandler and Sharp.
♦ Boyer, L. B. 1969. “Shamans: To Set the Record Straight.” American Anthropologist 71:307–9.
♦ Brown, Michael F. 1988. “Shamanism and Its Discontents.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 2 (2): 102–20.
♦ ---- 1989 “Dark Side of the Shaman.” Natural History (November): 8–10.
♦ Butt, A., S. Wavell, and N. Epton. 1966. Trances. London: Allen & Unwin.
♦ Calestro, Kenneth. 1972. “Psychotherapy, Faith Healing, and Suggestion.” International Journal of Psychiatry 10 (2): 83–113.
♦ Campbell, Joseph. 1949. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
♦ ----. 1959 The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology. New York: Viking Press.
♦ Carrasco, David, and J. M. Swanberg, eds. 1985. Waiting for the Dawn: Mircea Eliade in Perspective. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
♦ Csordas, Thomas J. 1996. “Imaginal Performance and Memory in Ritual Healing,” in Carol Laderman and Marina Roseman, eds., The Performance of Healing, 91–114. London: Routledge.
♦ Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guttari. 1972. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
♦ Devereux, George. 1956. “Normal and Abnormal: The Key Problem of Psychiatric Anthropology,” in J. B. Casagrande and T. Gladwin, eds., Some Uses of Anthropology: Theoretical and Applied, 22–48. Washington, D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washington.
♦ -----.1961 “Shamans as Neurotics.” American Anthropologist 63 (5): 1088–90.
♦ Devereux, Paul. 1992. Shamanism and the Mystery Lines: Ley Lines, Spirit Paths, Shape-Shifting and Out-of-Body-Travel. London: Quantum.
♦ ———. 1997. The Long Trip: A Prehistory of Psychedelia. New York: Arkana.
♦ ———. 2001. “Did Ancient Shamanism Leave a Monumental Record on the Land as Well as in Rock Art?” in Robert J. Wallis and Kenneth Lymer, eds. A Permeability of Boundaries? New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore, BAR International Series 936, 1–7. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ Diderot, Denis, et al. 2001 [1765]. “Shamans Are Imposters Who Claim They Consult the Devil—And Who Are Sometimes Close to the Mark,” in Jeremy Narby and Francis Huxley, eds., Shamans through Time: 500 Years on the Path to Knowledge, 32–35. London: Thames & Hudson.
♦ Downton, J. V. 1989. “Individuation and Shamanism.” Journal of Analytic Psychology 34:73–88.
♦ Eliade, Mircea. 1961. “Recent Works on Shamanism.” History of Religions 1 (1): 152–86.
♦ ———. 1964 [1951]. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. New York: Pantheon.
♦ Flaherty, Gloria. 1988. “The Performing Artist as the Shaman of Higher Civilisation.” Modern Language 103 (3): 519–39.
♦ ———. 1989. “Goethe and Shamanism.” Modern Language 104 (3): 580–96.
♦ ———. 1992. Shamanism and the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
♦ Forte, Robert, ed. 1997. Entheogens and the Future of Religion. San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices.
♦ Francfort, Henri-Paul, and Roberte N. Hamayon, eds. 2001. The Concept of Shamanism: Uses and Abuses. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Frazer, James. 1890. The Golden Bough. London: Macmillan.
♦ ———. 1975. Hallucinogens and Culture. Novato, Calif.: Chandler and Sharp.
♦ ———. 1978. “The Art of ‘Being Huichol,’” in K. Berrin, ed., Art of the Huichol Indians, 18–34. San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco.
♦ ———. 2003. Visions of a Huichol Shaman. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Furst, Peter T., ed. 1972. Flesh of the Gods: The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens. London: Allen & Unwin.
♦ Gilberg, R. 1984. “How to Recognise a Shaman among Other Ritual Specialists?” in Mihály Hoppál, ed., Shamanism in Eurasia, 21–27. Göttingen: Edition Herodot.
♦ Gmelin, Johann G. 2001 [1751]. “Shamans Deserve Perpetual Labor for Their Hocus-Pocus,” in Jeremy Narby and Francis Huxley, eds., Shamans through Time: 500 Years on the Path to Knowledge, 27–28. London: Thames & Hudson.
♦ Groesbeck, C. Jess. 1989. “C. G. Jung and the Shaman’s Vision.” Journal of Analytical Psychology 34 (3): 255–75.
♦ Grof, Stanislav. 1975. Realms of the Human Unconscious: Observations from LSD Research. London: Souvenir Press.
♦ ———. 1980. LSD Psychotherapy. Pomona, Calif.: Hunter House.
♦ ———. 1998. The Cosmic Game. Albany: State University of New York Press.
♦ ———. 2000. Psychology of the Future. Albany: State University of New York Press.
♦ Guenther, Mathias G. 1999. “From Totemism to Shamanism: Hunter-Gatherer Contributions to World Mythology and Spirituality,” in Richard B. Lee and Richard Daly, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, 426–33. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ Halifax, Joan. 1979. Shamanic Voices: A Survey of Visionary Narratives. London: Arkana.
♦ ———. 1982. Shaman: The Wounded Healer. London: Thames & Hudson.
♦ Handelman, Donald. 1968. “Shamanizing on an Empty Stomach.” American Anthropologist 70:353–56.
♦ Harner, Michael, ed. 1973. Hallucinogens and Shamanism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
♦ Harvey, Graham, ed. 2000. Indigenous Religions: A Companion. London: Cassell.
♦ ———, ed. 2002. Readings in Indigenous Religions. London: Continuum.
♦ ———, ed. 2003. Shamanism: A Reader. London: Routledge.
♦ ———. 2005. Animism: Respecting the Living World. London: Hurst; New York: Columbia University Press; Adelaide: Wakefield Press.
♦ Harvey, Graham, and Karen Ralls, eds. 2001. Indigenous Religious Musics. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
♦ Hayden, Brian. 2003. Shamans, Sorcerers and Saints: A Prehistory of Religion. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books.
♦ Heinze, Ruth-Inge, ed. 1991. Shamans of the 20th Century. New York: Irvington.
♦ Herle, Anita. 1993. “Views: Shaman Insights.” Museums Journal (December): 24.
♦ Holm, Nils G., ed. 1980. Religious Ecstasy. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
♦ ———, ed. 2000. Ethnography Is a Heavy Rite: Studies of Comparative Religion in Honor of Juha Pentikäinen. Turku, Finland: Åbo Akademi.
♦ Hoppál, Mihály, ed. 1984. Shamanism in Eurasia. Göttingen: Edition Herodot.
♦ Hoppál, Mihály, and Keith Howard, eds. 1993. Shamans and Cultures. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Hoppál, Mihály, and Otto von Sadovszky, eds. 1989. Shamanism: Past and Present. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
♦ Houston, Jean. 1987. “Foreword: The Mind and Soul of the Shaman,” in Shirley Nicholson, ed., Shamanism: An Expanded View of Reality, vii–xiii. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books.
♦ Hultkrantz, Åke. 1973. “A Definition of Shamanism.” Temenos 9:25–37.
♦ ———. 1998a. “The Meaning of Ecstasy in Shamanism,” in Helmut Wautischer, ed., Tribal Epistemologies: Essays in the Philosophy of Anthropology, 163–73. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
♦ ———. 1998b. “On the History of Research in Shamanism,” in Juha Pentikäinen, T. Jaatinen, I. Lehtinen, and M.-R. Saloniemi, eds., Shamans, 51–70. Tampere Museums Publications 45. Tampere, Finland: Tampere Museums.
♦ ———. 1998c. “Rejoinder,” in Helmut Wautischer, ed., Tribal Epistemologies: Essays in the Philosophy of Anthropology, 188–90. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
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Arctic, Central Asia, and Siberia
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♦ Rozwadowski, Andrej, and Maria M. Kośko, eds. 2002. Spirits and Stones: Shamanism and Rock Art in Central Asia and Siberia. Poznań, Poland: Instytut Wschodni.
♦ Saladin d’Anglure, Bernard. 1990. “Rethinking Inuit Shamanism through the Concept of ‘Third Gender,’” in Mihály Hoppál and Juha Pentikäinen, eds., Northern Religions and Shamanism, 146–50. Budapest: Akadémai Kiadó. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 235–41.
♦ Shirokogoroff, Sergei. M. 1923. “General Theory of Shamanism among the Tungus.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, North China Branch (Shanghai), 54:246–49.
♦ ———. 1924. “What Is Shamanism?” China Journal of Sciences and Arts 2 (3–4): 275–79, 328–71.
♦ ———. 1935. Psychomental Complex of the Tungus. London: Kegan Paul.
♦ Siikala, Anna-Leena. 1978. The Rite Technique of the Siberian Shaman. Helsinki: FF Communications 220.
♦ ———. 1992. Suomalainen shamanismi. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.
♦ Stern, Pamela. 2004. Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
♦ Sutherland, Patricia. 2001. “Shamanism and the Iconography of Palaeo-Eskimo Art,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 135–45. London: Routledge.
♦ Taylor, J. G. 1989. “Shamanic Sex Roles in Traditional Labrador Inuit Society,” in Mihály Hoppál and Otto von Sadovsky, eds., Shamanism Past and Present (Part 2), 297–306. Budapest, Hungary: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Fullerton, Calif.: International Society for TransOceanic Research.
♦ Turner, Edith. 1989. “From Shamans to Healers: The Survival of an Inupiaq Eskimo Skill.” Anthropologica 31:3–24.
♦ ———. 1996. The Hands Feel It: Healing and Spirit Presence among a Northern Alaskan People. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
♦ Uccusic, P. 1996. “Second Foundation Expedition to Tuva: July 1994.” Shamanism 8 (1): 4–9.
♦ Van Deusen, Kira. 1997a. “Buryat Shamans and Their Stories.” Shamanism 10 (1): 7–11.
♦ ———. 1997b. “Shamanism in Khakassia Today.” Shamanism 10 (1): 11–16.
♦ Vinogradov, Andrei. 1999. “After the Past, before the Present: New Shamanism in Gorny Altai.” Anthropology of Consciousness 10 (4): 36–45.
♦ ———. 2003. “Ak Jang in the Context of Altai Religious Tradition.” Master’s thesis, University of Saskatchewan. Available at library.usask.ca/theses/available/etd-01192005-154827/unrestricted/tezispdf.pdf.
♦ Vitebsky, Piers. 1995. “From Cosmology to Environmentalism: Shamanism as Local Knowledge in a Global Setting,” in Richard Fardon, ed., Counterworks: Managing the Diversity of Knowledge, 182–203. London: Routledge. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 276–98.
♦ ———. 2005. The Reindeer People: Living with Animals and Spirits in Siberia. London: Houghton Mifflin.
♦ Whaley, Arthur. 1955. The Nine Songs: A Study of Shamanism in Ancient China. London: Allen & Unwin.
Europe
♦ Aswynn, Freyja. 1994. Leaves of Yggdrasil. Saint Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn.
♦ Backman, L. 1987. “The Noaidie: The Sami Shaman,” in M. M. J. FernandezVest, ed., Kalevala et traditions orales du monde, 53–59. Paris: Colloques Internationaux du CRNS.
♦ Bates, Brian. 1983. The Way of Wyrd. London: Arrow.
♦ ———. 1996. The Wisdom of the Wyrd: Teachings for Today from Our Ancient Past. London: Rider.
♦ ———. 1996–1997. “Wyrd: Life Force of the Cosmos.” Sacred Hoop 15 (Winter): 8–13.
♦ ———. 2002. The Real Middle Earth. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.
♦ Blain, Jenny. 1998. “Presenting Constructions of Identity and Divinity: Ásatrú and Oracular Seidhr,” in S. Grills, ed., Fieldwork Methods: Accomplishing Ethnographic Research, 203–27. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
♦ ———. 1999a. “The Nine Worlds and the Tree: Sei∂r as Shamanistic Practice in Heathen Spirituality.” Spirit Talk 9 (Early Summer): 14–19.
♦ ———. 1999b. “Seidr as Shamanistic Practice: Reconstituting a Tradition of Ambiguity.” Shaman 7 (2): 99–121.
♦ ———. 2001. “Shamans, Stones, Authenticity and Appropriation: Contestations of Invention and Meaning,” in Robert J. Wallis and Kenneth Lymer, eds., A Permeability of Boundaries: New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore, 47–55. BAR International Series 936. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ ———. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic: Ecstasy and Neo-shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge.
♦ Blain, Jenny, and Robert J. Wallis. 2000. “The ‘Ergi’ Seidman: Contestations of Gender, Shamanism and Sexuality in Northern Religion Past and Present.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 15 (3): 395–411.
♦ ———. 2002. “A Living Landscape? Pagans and Archaeological Discourse.” 3rd Stone 43 (Summer): 20–27.
♦ ———. 2004a. “Sacred Sites, Contested Rites/Rights: Contemporary Pagan Engagements with the Past.” Journal of Material Culture 9 (3): 237–61.
♦ ———. 2004b. “Sites, Texts, Contexts and Inscriptions of Meaning: Investigating Pagan ‘Authenticities’ in a Text-Based Society.” Pomegranate 6 (2): 231–52.
♦ ———. 2006b. “Re-Presenting Spirit: Heathenry, New-Indigenes, and the Imaged Past,” in Ian A. Russel, ed., Image, Simulation and Meaning in Archaeology: On Archaeology and the Industrialisation and Marketing of Heritage and Tourism, 89–118. London: Springer.
♦ Bradley, Richard. 1997. Signing the Land: Rock Art and the Prehistory of Atlantic Europe. London: Routledge.
♦ Buxton, Simon. 2004. The Shamanic Way of the Bee. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions.
♦ Chadwick, Nora K. 1934. “Imbas Forosnai.” Scottish Gaelic Studies 4:98–135.
♦ ———. 1942. Poetry and Prophecy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ ———. 1966. The Druids. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
♦ Clifton, Chas S., and Graham Harvey, eds. 2004. The Paganism Reader. London: Routledge.
♦ Clottes, Jean, and J. David Lewis-Williams. 1998. The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and Magic in the Painted Caves. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
♦ Cowan, Tom. 1993. Fire in the Head: Shamanism and the Celtic Spirit. San Francisco: HarperCollins.
♦ Creighton, John. 1995. “Visions of Power: Imagery and Symbols in Late Iron Age Britain.” Britannia 26:285–301.
♦ ———. 2000. Coins and Power in Late Iron Age Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ Davenport, Demorest, and Michael A. Jochim. 1988. “The Scene in the Shaft at Lascaux.” Antiquity 62:559–62.
♦ Devereux, Paul. 1992. Shamanism and the Mystery Lines: Ley Lines, Spirit Paths, Shape-Shifting and Out-of-Body-Travel. London: Quantum.
♦ ———. 1997. The Long Trip: A Prehistory of Psychedelia. New York: Arkana.
♦ Dickinson, Tania M. 1993. “An Anglo-Saxon ‘Cunning Woman’ from BidfordonAvon,” in Martin Carver, ed., In Search of Cult: Archaeological Investigations in Honour of Philip Ratz, 45–54. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Boydell Press.
♦ Dowson, Thomas A., and Martin Porr. 2001. “Special Objects—Special Creatures: Shamanistic Imagery and the Aurignacian Art of South-west Germany,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 165–77. London: Routledge.
♦ Dronfield, Jeremy. 1996. “Entering Alternative Realities: Cognition, Art and Architecture in Irish Passage Tombs.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6 (1): 37–72.
♦ Dubois, Thomas A. 1999. Nordic Religions in the Viking Age. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
♦ Favret-Saada, Jeanne. 1980. Deadly Words: Witchcraft in the Bocage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ Fries, Jan. 1993. Helrunar: A Manual of Rune Magic. Oxford: Mandrake Press.
♦ ———. 1996. Seidways: Shaking, Swaying and Serpent Mysteries. Oxford: Mandrake.
♦ ———. 2001. Cauldron of the Gods: Manual of Celtic Magick. Oxford: Mandrake.
♦ Ginzburg, Carlo. 1983. The Night Battles:Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
♦ ———. 1991. Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches’ Sabbath. London: Hutchinson.
♦ Glosecki, Stephen O. 1986. “Wolf Dancers and Whispering Beasts: Shamanic Motifs from Sutton Hoo?” Mankind Quarterly 26:305–19.
♦ ———. 1988. “Wolf of the Bees: Germanic Shamanism and the Bear Hero.” Journal of Ritual Studies 2 (1): 31–53.
♦ ———. 1989. Shamanism and Old English Poetry. New York: Garland.
♦ Grambo, R. 1989. “Unmanliness and Sei∂r: Problems Concerning the Change of Sex,” in Mihály Hoppál and Otto von Sadovszky, eds., Shamanism: Past and Present (Part 1), 103–13. Budapest: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Fullerton, Calif.: International Society for TransOceanic Research.
♦ Green, Miranda. 1997. Exploring the World of the Druids. London: Thames & Hudson.
♦ Gundarsson, Kveldulf. 2001. “Spae-Craft, Sei∂r, and Shamanism.” www.thetroth.org/resources/kveldulf/spaecraft.html.
♦ Gyrus Orbitalis. 2000. “On Prehistoric Rock Art and Psychedelic Experiences.” dreamflesh.com/essays/rockpsych.
♦ Hoppál, Mihály, and Juha Pentikäinen, eds. 1992. Northern Religions and Shamanism. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Howard, Michael. 1985. The Wisdom of the Runes. London: Rider.
♦ Hübener, Gustav. 1935. “Beowulf and Germanic Exorcism.” Review of English Studies 11:163–81.
♦ Hutton, Ronald. 1991. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
♦ Johnson, Nathan J., and Robert J. Wallis. 2005. Galdrbok: Practical Heathen Runecraft, Shamanism and Magic. London: Wykeham Press.
♦ Jones, Leslie Ellen. 1998. Druid, Shaman, Priest: Metaphors of Celtic Paganism. Enfield Lock, England: Hisarlik Press.
♦ Karjala, M. Y. 1992. “Aspects of the Other World in Irish Folk Tradition,” in Mihály Hoppál and Juha Pentikäinen, eds., Northern Religions and Shamanism, 176–80. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Knüsel, Christopher, and Kathryn Ripley. 2000. “The Berdache or Man-woman in Anglo-Saxon England and Early Medieval Europe,” in William O. Frazer and Andrew Tyrell, eds., Social Identity in Early Medieval Britain, 157–91. Leicester, England: Leicester University Press.
♦ Larrington, Carolyne, trans. 1996. The Poetic Edda. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
♦ Laurie, Erynn R., and Timothy White. 1997. “Speckled Snake, Brother of Birch: Amanita Muscaria Motifs in Celtic Literature.” Shaman’s Drum 44:52–65.
♦ Leto, Stephen. 2000. “Magical Potions: Entheogenic Themes in Scandinavian Mythology.” Shaman’s Drum 54:55–65.
♦ Lonigan, Paul. 1985. “Shamanism in the Old Irish Tradition.” Eire-Ireland 20 (3): 109–29.
♦ MacEowen, Frank H. 1998. “Rekindling the Gaelic Hearthways of Oran Mor.” Shaman’s Drum 49 (Summer): 32–39.
♦ ———. 2004. The Spiral of Memory and Belonging: A Celtic Path of Soul and Kinship. Novato, Calif.: New World Library.
♦ Mack, J. 1992. “Shetland Finn-Men: Interpretations of Shamanism?” in Mihály Hoppál and Juha Pentikäinen, eds., Northern Religions and Shamanism, 181–87. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ MacLellan, Gordon. 1995. “Dancing on the Edge: Shamanism in Modern Britain,” in Graham Harvey and Charlotte Hardman, eds., Paganism Today: Wiccans, Druids, the Goddess and Ancient Earth Traditions for the TwentyFirst Century, 138–48. London: Thorsons.
♦ Matthews, Caitlin. 1996. “Following the Awen-Celtic Shamanism and the Druid Path in the Modern World,” in Philip Carr-Gomm, ed., The Druid Renaissance, 223–36. London: Thorsons.
♦ Matthews, John. 1991a. The Celtic Shaman: A Handbook. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ ———. 1991b. The Song of Taliesin: Stories and Poems from the Books of Broceliande. London: Aquarian.
♦ ———. 1991c. Taliesin: Shamanism and the Bardic Mysteries in Britain and Ireland. London: Aquarian.
♦ Mattingly, Harold, trans. 1948. Tacitus on Britain and Germany. London: Penguin.
♦ Meadows, Kenneth. 1996. Rune Power. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ Meaney, Audrey L. 1981. Anglo-Saxon Amulets and Curing Stones. BAR British Series 96. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ ———. 1989. “Women, Witchcraft and Magic in Anglo-Saxon England,” in D. G. Scragg, ed., Superstition and Popular Medicine in Anglo-Saxon England, 9–40. Manchester, England: Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies.
♦ Melia, Daniel F. 1983. “The Irish Saint as Shaman.” Pacific Coast Theology 18:37–42.
♦ Metzner, Ralph. 1994. The Well of Remembrance: Rediscovering the Earth Wisdom Myths of Northern Europe. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ Morris, Katherine. 1991. Sorceress or Witch? The Image of Gender in Medieval Iceland and Northern Europe. New York: University of America Press.
♦ Murray, Margaret. 1921. The Witch-Cult in Western Europe. London: Oxford University Press.
♦ ———. 1931. The God of the Witches. London: Sampson Low, Marston.
♦ Naddair, Kaledon. 1990. “Pictish and Keltic Shamanism,” in Prudence Jones and Caitlin Matthews, eds., Voices from the Circle: The Heritage of Western Paganism, 93–108. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian Press.
♦ Nagy, Joseph F. 1981. “Shamanic Aspects of the Bruidhean Tale.” History of Religions 20:302–22.
♦ Paxson, Diana L. 1993. “Heide: Witch-Goddess of the North,” Sagewoman, Fall 1993. Available at www.hrafnar.org/goddesses/heide.html.
♦ ———. 1998. “‘This Thou Dost Know . . .’: Oracles in the Northern Tradition.” Idunna: A Journal of Northern Tradition, n.p.
♦ Pennick, Nigel. 1989. Practical Magic in the Northern Tradition. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian.
♦ ———. 1992. Rune Magic: The History and Practice of Ancient Runic Traditions. London: Thorsons.
♦ Piggott, Stuart. 1962. “From Salisbury Plain to South Siberia.” Wiltshire Magazine 58:93–97.
♦ ———. 1968. The Druids. London: Pelican.
♦ Pollington, Stephen. 2000. Leechcraft: Early English Charms, Plantlore and Healing. Hockwold-cum-Wilton, England: Anglo-Saxon Books.
♦ Price, Neil S. 2000. “Shamanism and the Vikings?” in William W. Fitzhugh and Elisabeth I. Ward, eds., Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga, 70–71. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
♦ ———. 2002. The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
♦ Ross, Anne. 1967. Pagan Celtic Britain. London: Constable.
♦ Shell, Colin A. 2000. “Metalworker or Shaman: Early Bronze Age Upton Lovell G2a Burial.” Antiquity 74:271–72.
♦ Shepherd, Colin. 1998. A Study of the Relationship between Style I Art and Socio-Political Change in Early Medieval Europe. BAR International Series 745. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ Sherratt, Andrew. 1991. “Sacred and Profane Substances: The Ritual Use of Narcotics in Later Neolithic Europe,” in Paul Garwood, David Jennings, Robin Skeates, and Judith Toms, eds., Sacred and Profane: Conference Proceedings, 50–64. Oxford University Monograph 32. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
♦ Shetelig, Haakon, and Hjalmur Falk. 1937. Scandinavian Archaeology. Oxford, England: Clarendon.
♦ Simek, Rudolf. 1993. A Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Bury St. Edmunds, England: St. Edmundsbury Press.
♦ Solli, Brit. 1999. “Odin the Queer? On Ergi and Shamanism in Norse Mythology,” in Andy Gustafsson and Hàkan Karlsson, eds., Glyfer och arkeologiska rumen vänbok till Jarl Nordbladh, Gotarc Series A, 3:341–49. Göteborg, Sweden: University of Göteborg.
♦ Stoodley, Nick. 1999. The Spindle and the Spear: A Critical Enquiry into the Construction and Meaning of Gender in the Early Anglo-Saxon Burial Rite. BAR British Series 288. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ Strömbäck, Dag. 1935. Sejd: Textstudier i nordisk religionshistoria. Nordiska texter och undersökningar 5. Stockholm: Hugo Gebers Förlag.
♦ Wallis, Robert J. 2000. “Queer Shamans: Autoarchaeology and Neo-shamanism.” World Archaeology 32 (2): 251–61.
♦ ———. 2001. “Waking the Ancestors: Neo-shamanism and Archaeology,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 213–30. London: Routledge. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 402–23.
♦ ———. 2003. Shamans/Neo-Shamans: Ecstasy, Alternative Archaeology and Contemporary Pagans. London: Routledge.
♦ Wallis, Robert J., and Jenny Blain. 2003. “Sites, Sacredness, and Stories: Interactions of Archaeology and Contemporary Paganism.” Folklore 114 (3): 307–21.
♦ Wilby, Emma. 2005. Cunning Folk and Familiar Spirits: Shamanistic Visionary Traditions in Early Modern British Witchcraft and Magic. Brighton, England: Sussex Academic Press.
Indian Subcontinent, Nepal, and Tibet
♦ Hardman, Charlotte. 2000. Other Worlds: Notions of Self and Emotion among the Lohorung Rai. Oxford, England: Berg.
♦ ———. 2002. “Beer, Trees, Pigs and Chickens: Medical Tools of the Lohorung Shaman and Priest,” in P. A. Baker and G. Carr, eds., Practitioners, Practices and Patients: New Approaches to Medical Archaeology and Anthropology, 81–108. Oxford, England: Oxbow.
♦ Harper, Edward. 1957. “Shamanism in South India.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 13:267–87.
♦ Holmberg, David H. 1989. Order in Paradox: Myth, Ritual, and Exchange among Nepal’s Tamang. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
♦ Mumford, Stan R. 1989. Himalayan Dialogue: Tibetan Lamas and Gurung Shamans in Nepal. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
♦ Opler, Morris E. 1958. “Spirit Possession in a Rural Area of Northern India,” in William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt, eds., Reader in Comparative Religion, 553–66. New York: Harper & Row.
♦ Peters, Larry G. 1981. Ecstasy and Healing in Nepal: An Ethnopsychiatric Study of Tamang Shamanism. Malibu, Calif.: Undena.
♦ ———. 1982. “Trance, Initiation, and Psychotherapy in Tamang Shamanism.” American Ethnologist 9 (1): 21–46.
♦ ———. 1997. “The Tibetan Healing Rituals of Dorje Yüdronma: Fierce Manifestation of Feminine Cosmic Force.” Shaman’s Drum 45:36–47.
♦ Samuel, Geoffrey. 2004. Tantric Revisionings: New Understandings of Tibetan Buddhism and Indian Religion. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
♦ Spilman, S. 1999. “Lhamo Dolkar: A Tibetan Exorcist in Nepal.” Shaman’s Drum 51:51–57.
♦ Sullivan, Bruce M. 1997. Historical Dictionary of Hinduism. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
♦ Vitebsky, Piers. 1993. Dialogues with the Dead: The Discussion of Mortality among the Sora of Eastern India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ Walter, Damien. 2001. “The Medium of the Message: Shamanism as Localized Practice in the Nepal Himalayas,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 105–19. London: Routledge.
Pacific and Southeast Asia
♦ Atkinson, Jane M. 1989. The Art and Politics of Wana Shamanship. Berkeley: University of California Press.
♦ Averbuch, Irit. 1998. “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura.” Asia Folklore Studies 57 (2): 293–329.
♦ Berndt, Roland M., and Catherine H. Berndt. 1993. A World That Was: The Yaraldi of the Murray River and the Lakes, South Australia. Carlton, Australia: Melbourne University Press.
♦ Blacker, Carmen. 1999. The Catalpa Bow: A Study of Shamanistic Practices in Japan. 3rd ed. London: Japan Library.
♦ Chippindale, Christopher, Benjamin Smith, and Paul S. C. Taçon. 2000. “Visions of Dynamic Power: Archaic Rock-Paintings, Altered States of Consciousness and ‘Clever Men’ in Western Arnhem Land (NT), Australia.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 10 (1): 63–101.
♦ Elkin, Adolphus P. 1977. Aboriginal Men of High Degree: Initiation and Sorcery in the World’s Oldest Tradition. 2nd ed. St. Lucia, Australia: University of Queensland Press.
♦ Flood, Bo. 2001. Marianas Island Legends: Myth and Magic. Honolulu: Bess Press.
♦ Heinze, Ruth-Inge. 1997. Trance and Healing in Southeast Asia Today. Bangkok: White Lotus.
♦ Herdt, Gilbert. 1977. “The Shamans ‘Calling’ among the Sambia of New Guinea.” Journal de la Société des Océanistes 33:153–67.
♦ Howell, Signe. 1984. Society and Cosmos: Chewong of Peninsular Malaysia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
♦ ———. 1989. “‘To Be Angry Is Not to Be Human, But to Be Fearful Is’: Chewong Concepts of Human Nature,” in Signe Howell and Roy Willis, eds., Societies at Peace: Anthropological Perspectives, 45–59. London: Routledge.
♦ Jullerat, Bernard. 1979. Spirit Possession: Shamans and Trance in New Guinea. Paris: Société de Oceane.
♦ Katz, Richard. 1999. The Straight Path of the Spirit: Ancestral Wisdom and Healing Traditions in Fiji. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street Press.
♦ Kendall, Laurel. 1981. “Supernatural Traffic: East Asian Shamanism.” Culture Medicine and Psychiatry 5:171–91.
♦ ———. 1985. Shamans, Housewives, and Other Restless Spirits: Women in Korean Ritual Life. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
♦ ———. 1988. The Life and Hard Times of a Korean Shaman. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
♦ ———. 1996. “Korean Shamanism and the Spirits of Capitalism.” American Anthropologist 98 (3): 512–27.
♦ Laderman, Carol. 1991. Taming the Wind of Desire: Psychology, Medicine, and Aesthetics in Malay Shamanistic Performance. Berkeley: University of California Press.
♦ Lattas, Andrew. 1993. “Sorcery and Colonialism: Illness, Dreams and Death as Political Languages in West New Britain.” Man 28 (1): 51–77.
♦ Layard, John W. 1930a. “Malakula: Flying Tricksters, Ghosts, Gods and Epileptics.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 60:501–24.
♦ ———. 1930b. “Shamanism: An Analysis Based on Comparison with the Flying Tricksters of Malakula.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 60:525–50.
♦ Lewis, Ioan M. 1993. “Malay Bomohs and Shamans.” Man 28: 361.
♦ Naoko, Takiguchi. 1984. Miyako Shamanism: Shamans, Clients, and Their Interactions. Los Angeles: Department of Anthropology, University of California. Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. 1980. “Shamans and Imu: Among Two Ainu Groups.” Ethos 8 (3): 204–28.
♦ Picken, Stuart B. 2002. Historical Dictionary of Shinto. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
♦ Sales, Kim. 1992. “Ascent to the Sky: A Shamanic Initiatory Engraving from the Burrup Peninsula, Northwest Western Australia.” Archaeology Oceania 27:22–35.
♦ Spiro, Melford E. 1952. “Ghosts, Ifaluk, and Teleological Functionalism.” American Anthropologist 54 (4): 497–503.
♦ Stephen, Michelle. 1979. “Dreams of Change: The Innovative Role of Altered States of Consciousness in Traditional Melanesian Religion.” Oceania 50 (1): 3–22.
♦ ———, ed. 1987. Sorcerer and Witch in Melanesia. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
♦ Strathern, Andrew. 1994. “Between Body and Mind: Shamans and Politics among the Anga, Baktaman and Gebusi in Papua New Guinea.” Oceania 64 (4): 288–301.
♦ Tanaka, Sakurako (Sherry). 2000. The Ainu of Tsugaru: The Indigenous History and Shamanism of Northern Japan. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.
♦ ———. 2003. “Ainu Shamanism: A Forbidden Path to Universal Knowledge.” Cultural Survival Quarterly, Issue 27 (2) (June 15) www.cs.org/publications/csq/csq-article.cfm?id=1667.
♦ Thomas, Nicholas. 1989. “Marginal Powers: Shamanism and the Disintegration of Hierarchy.” Critique of Anthropology 8 (3): 53–74.
♦ ———. 1994. “Marginal Powers: Shamanism and Hierarchy in Eastern Oceania,” in Nicholas Thomas and Caroline Humphrey, eds., Shamanism, History, and the State, 15–31. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
♦ Tonkinson, Robert. 1981. “Sorcery and Social Change in Southeast Ambrym, Vanuatu.” Social Analysis 8:77–88.
♦ Trompf, Gary. 1991. Melanesian Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ Wallis, Robert J. 2002. “The Bwili or ‘Flying Tricksters’ of Malakula: A Critical Discussion of Recent Debates on Rock Art, Ethnography and Shamanisms.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 8 (4): 735–60.
♦ Zelenietz, Marty, and Shirley Lindenbaum, eds. 1981. Sorcery and Social Change in Melanesia, Special Issue of Social Analysis 8.
THEMES
Altered Consciousness
♦ Blain, Jenny. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic: Ecstasy and Neo-shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge.
♦ Blain, Jenny, and Robert J. Wallis. 2006a. “Ritual Reflections, Practitioner Meanings: Disputing the Terminology of Neo-shamanic ‘Performance.’” Journal of Ritual Studies 20 (1): 21–36.
♦ Boddy, J. 1994. “Spirit Possession Revisited: Beyond Instrumentality.” Annual Review of Anthropology 23:407–34.
♦ Bourguignon, Erika. 1967. “World Distribution and Pattern of Possession States,” in Raymond Prince, ed., Trance and Possession States, 3–34. Montreal: R. M. Bucke Memorial Society.
♦ ———. 1974. “Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the Religious Use of Altered States of Consciousness,” in Irving I. Zaretsky and Mark P. Leone, eds., Religious Movements in Contemporary America, 228–43. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
♦ ———. 1976. Possession. San Francisco: Chandler & Sharp.
♦ Butt, A., S. Wavell, and N. Epton. 1966. Trances. London: Allen & Unwin.
♦ Clottes, Jean, and J. David Lewis-Williams. 1998. The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and Magic in the Painted Caves. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
♦ Dowson, Thomas A. 1998b. “Rock Art: Handmaiden to Studies of Cognitive Evolution,” in Colin Renfrew and Chris Scarre, eds., Cognition and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Symbolic Storage, 67–76. Cambridge, England: McDonald Institute Monographs.
♦ ———. 1999b. “Rock Art and Shamanism: A Methodological Impasse,” in Andrej Rozwadowski, Maria M. Kośko, and Thomas A. Dowson, eds., Rock Art, Shamanism and Central Asia: Discussions of Relations (in Polish), 39–56. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Academickie.
♦ Goodman, Felicitas D. 1986. “Body Posture and the Religious Altered State of Consciousness: An Experimental Investigation.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 26 (3): 81–118.
♦ ———. 1988. “Shamanic Trance Postures,” in Gary Doore, ed., Shaman’s Path: Healing, Personal Growth, and Empowerment, 53–61. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ Gyrus Orbitalis. 2000. “On Prehistoric Rock Art and Psychedelic Experiences.” dreamflesh.com/essays/rockpsych.
♦ Hamayon, Roberte N. 1993. “Are ‘Trance,’ ‘Ecstasy’ and Similar Concepts Appropriate in the Study of Shamanism?” Shaman 1 (2): 3–25.
♦ ———. 1996. “Shamanism in Siberia: From Partnership in Supernature to Counter-power in Society,” in Nicholas Thomas and Caroline Humphrey, eds., Shamanism, History, and the State, 76–89. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
♦ ———. 1998. “‘Ecstasy’ or the West-Dreamt Siberian Shaman,” in Helmut Wautischer, ed., Tribal Epistemologies: Essays in the Philosophy of Anthropology, 175–87. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
♦ Harner, Michael. 1988. “What Is a Shaman?” in Gary Doore, ed., Shaman’s Path: Healing, Personal Growth, and Empowerment, 7–15. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ ———. 1990 [1980]. The Way of the Shaman. London: HarperCollins.
♦ Heusch, Luc de. 1982. “Possession and Shamanism,” in Luc de Heusch, Why Marry Her? Society and Symbolic Structures, 151–64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ Holm, Nils G., ed. 1980. Religious Ecstasy. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
♦ Hultkrantz, Åke. 1998. “The Meaning of Ecstasy in Shamanism,” in Helmut Wautischer, ed., Tribal Epistemologies: Essays in the Philosophy of Anthropology, 163–73. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
♦ Jakobsen, Merete Demant. 1999. Shamanism: Traditional and Contemporary Approaches to the Mastery of Spirits and Healing. Oxford, England: Berghahn Books.
♦ Johnson, Nathan J., and Robert J. Wallis. 2005. Galdrbok: Practical Heathen Runecraft, Shamanism and Magic. London: Wykeham Press.
♦ Kehoe, Alice B. 1981. “Women’s Preponderance in Possession Cults: The Calcium Deficiency Hypothesis Extended.” American Anthropologist 83:549–61.
♦ ———. 2000. Shamans and Religion: An Anthropological Exploration in Critical Thinking. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press.
♦ Lewis, I. M. 2003. “Trance, Possession, Shamanism and Sex.” Anthropology of Consciousness 14 (1): 20–39.
♦ Lewis-Williams, J. David. 1992. “Ethnographic Evidence Relating to ‘Trance’ and ‘Shamans’ among Northern and Southern Bushmen.” South African Archaeological Bulletin 47:56–60.
♦ Lewis-Williams, J. David, and Thomas A. Dowson. 1988. “The Signs of All Times: Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art.” Current Anthropology 29 (2): 201–45.
♦ Lex, Barbara. 1984. “Recent Contributions to the Study of Ritual Trance.” Reviews in Anthropology 11:44–51.
♦ Métraux, Alfred. 1957. “Dramatic Elements in Ritual Possession.” Diogenes 11:18–36.
♦ Noll, Richard. 1983. “Shamanism and Schizophrenia: A State-Specific Approach to the ‘Schizophrenia Metaphor’ of Shamanic States.” American Ethnologist 10:443–59.
♦ ———. 1985. “Mental Imagery Cultivation as a Cultural Phenomenon: The Role of Visions in Shamanism.” Current Anthropology 26:443–61.
♦ ———. 1989. “What Has Really Been Learned about Shamanism?” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 21 (1): 47–50.
♦ Osterreich, T. K. 1966. Possession: Demoniacal and Other. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press.
♦ Price, Neil S. 2001a. “An Archaeology of Altered States: Shamanism and Material Culture Studies,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 3–16. London: Routledge.
♦ ———, ed. 2001b. The Archaeology of Shamanism. London: Routledge.
♦ Prince, Raymond, ed. 1968. Trance and Possession States. Montreal: R. M. Bucke Memorial Society.
♦ Reinhard, Johan. 1976. “Shamanism and Spirit Possession: The Definition Problem,” in John T. Hitchcock and Rex L. Jones, eds., Spirit Possession in the Nepal Himalayas, 12–20. Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips.
♦ Rouget, Gilbert. 1985. Music and Trance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
♦ Tart, Charles T. 1969. Altered States of Consciousness. New York: E. P. Dutton.
♦ Wallis, Robert J. 1999. “Altered States, Conflicting Cultures: Shamans, Neoshamans and Academics.” Anthropology of Consciousness 10 (2–3): 41–49.
♦ ———. 2002. “The Bwili or ‘Flying Tricksters’ of Malakula: A Critical Discussion of Recent Debates on Rock Art, Ethnography and Shamanisms.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 8 (4): 735–60.
♦ ———. 2003. Shamans/Neo-Shamans: Ecstasy, Alternative Archaeology and Contemporary Pagans. London: Routledge.
♦ ———. 2004. “Shamanism and Art,” in Mariko N. Walter and Eva N. Fridman, eds., Shamanism: An Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices, and Culture, 1:21–28. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
♦ Winkelman, Michael. 1986. “Trance States: A Theoretical Model and CrossCultural Analysis.” Ethos 14:174–203.
♦ ———. 1999. “Altered States of Consciousness and Religious Behavior,” in Stephen D. Glazier, ed., Anthropology of Religion: A Handbook, 393–428. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
♦ ———. 2000. Shamanism: The Neural Ecology of Consciousness and Healing. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey.
♦ Wright, Peggy A. 1989. “The Nature of the Shamanic State of Consciousness: A Review.” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 21 (1): 25–33.
Animism
♦ Bird-David, Nurit. 1993. “Tribal Metaphorization of Human–Nature Relatedness: A Comparative Analysis,” in Kay Milton, ed., Environmentalism: The View from Anthropology, 112–25. London: Routledge.
♦ ———. 1999. “‘Animism Revisited’: Personhood, Environment, and Relational Epistemology,” Current Anthropology 40:67–91. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Readings in Indigenous Religions (New York: Continuum, 2002), 72–105.
♦ Blain, Jenny, and Robert J. Wallis. 2002. “A Living Landscape? Pagans and Archaeological Discourse.” 3rd Stone 43 (Summer): 20–27.
♦ ———. 2006b. “Re-Presenting Spirit: Heathenry, New-Indigenes, and the Imaged Past,” in Ian A. Russel, ed., Image, Simulation and Meaning in Archaeology: On Archaeology and the Industrialisation and Marketing of Heritage and Tourism, 89–118. London: Springer.
♦ Fausto, Carlos. 2004. “A Blend of Blood and Tobacco: Shamans and Jaguars among the Parakanã of Eastern Amazonia,” in Neil L. Whitehead and Robin Wright, eds., In Darkness and Secrecy, 157–78. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
♦ Hallowell, A. Irving. 1960. “Ojibwa Ontology, Behavior and World View,” in Stanley Diamond, ed., Culture in History, 19–52. New York: Columbia University Press. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Readings in Indigenous Religions (London: Continuum, 2002), 17–49.
♦ Harvey, Graham. 2005. Animism: Respecting the Living World. London: Hurst; New York: Columbia University Press; Adelaide: Wakefield Press.
♦ Howell, Signe. 1984. Society and Cosmos: Chewong of Peninsular Malaysia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
♦ ———. 1989. “‘To Be Angry Is Not to Be Human, But to Be Fearful Is’: Chewong Concepts of Human Nature,” in Signe Howell and Roy Willis, eds., Societies at Peace: Anthropological Perspectives, 45–59. London: Routledge.
♦ Johnson, Nathan J., and Robert J. Wallis. 2005. Galdrbok: Practical Heathen Runecraft, Shamanism and Magic. London: Wykeham Press.
♦ Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo. 1992. From the Enemy’s Point of View: Humanity and Divinity in an Amazonian Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
♦ ———. 1998. “Cosmological Deixis and Amerindian Perspectivism.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 4:469–88.
♦ ———. 1999. “Comment on Nurit Bird-David’s “Animism Revisited.’” Current Anthropology 40:S79–80.
Gender
♦ Balzer, Marjorie M. 1996b. “Sacred Genders in Siberia: Shamans, Bear Festivals and Androgyny,” in Sabrina P. Ramet, ed., Reversals and Gender Cultures, 164–82. London: Routledge. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 242–61.
♦ Basilov, Vladimir. 1978. “Vestiges of Transvestism in Central-Asian Shamanism,” in Vilmos Diószegi and Mihály Hoppál, eds., Shamanism in Siberia, 281–90. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Blain, Jenny, and Robert J. Wallis. 2000. “The ‘Ergi’ Seidman: Contestations of Gender, Shamanism and Sexuality in Northern Religion Past and Present.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 15 (3): 395–411.
♦ Cruden, Loren. 1995. Coyote’s Council Fire: Contemporary Shamans on Race, Gender, and Community. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books.
♦ Czaplicka, Maria A. 1914. Aboriginal Siberia: A Study in Social Anthropology. Oxford, England: Clarendon.
♦ Grambo, R. 1989. “Unmanliness and Sei∂r: Problems Concerning the Change of Sex,” in Mihály Hoppál and Otto von Sadovszky, eds., Shamanism: Past and Present (Part 1), 103–13. Budapest: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Fullerton, Calif.: International Society for TransOceanic Research.
♦ Hamayon, Roberte N. 1993. “Are ‘Trance,’ ‘Ecstasy’ and Similar Concepts Appropriate in the Study of Shamanism?” Shaman 1 (2): 3–25.
♦ ———. 1996. “Shamanism in Siberia: From Partnership in Supernature to Counter-power in Society,” in Nicholas Thomas and Caroline Humphrey, eds., Shamanism, History and the State, 76–89. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
♦ Lang, Sabine. 1998. Men as Women, Women as Men: Changing Gender in Native American Cultures. Austin: University of Texas Press.
♦ Lewis, Ioan M. 1999. “Shamans and Sex: A Comparative Perspective,” in Arguments with Ethnography, 106–14. London: Athlone.
♦ ———. 2003. “Trance, Possession, Shamanism and Sex.” Anthropology of Consciousness 14 (1): 20–39.
♦ Morris, Katherine. 1991. Sorceress or Witch? The Image of Gender in Medieval Iceland and Northern Europe. New York: University of America Press.
♦ Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1974. Amazonian Cosmos: The Sexual and Religious Symbolism of the Tukano Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
♦ Roscoe, Will. 1996. “How to Become a Berdache: Toward a Unified Analysis of Gender Diversity,” in Gilbert Herdt, ed., Third Sex Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History, 329–71. New York: Zone Books.
♦ ———. 1998. Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in North America. London: Macmillan.
♦ Saladin d’Anglure, Bernard. 1990. “Rethinking Inuit Shamanism through the Concept of ‘Third Gender,’” in Mihály Hoppál and Juha Pentikäinen, eds., Northern Religions and Shamanism, 146–50. Budapest: Akadémai Kiadó. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 235–41.
♦ Stoodley, Nick. 1999. The Spindle and the Spear: A Critical Enquiry into the Construction and Meaning of Gender in the Early Anglo-Saxon Burial Rite. BAR British Series 288. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ Taylor, J. G. 1989. “Shamanic Sex Roles in Traditional Labrador Inuit Society,” in Mihály Hoppál and Otto von Sadovsky, eds., Shamanism Past and Present (Part 2), 297–306. Budapest: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Fullerton, Calif.: International Society for Trans-Oceanic Research.
♦ Whitehead, Harriet. 1993. “The Bow and the Burden Strap: A New Look at Institutionalized Homosexuality in Native North America,” in Henry Abelove, Michele A. Barde, and David M. Halperin, eds., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, 498–527. London: Routledge.
Neo-Shamanisms
♦ Allegro, John M. 1970. The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
♦ Andrews, Lynn. 1982. Medicine Woman. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
♦ Aswynn, Freyja. 1994. Leaves of Yggdrasil. Saint Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn.
♦ Bates, Brian. 1983. The Way of Wyrd. London: Arrow.
♦ ———. 1996. The Wisdom of the Wyrd: Teachings for Today from Our Ancient Past. London: Rider.
♦ ———. 1996–1997. “Wyrd: Life Force of the Cosmos.” Sacred Hoop 15 (Winter): 8–13.
♦ Beals, R. L. 1978. “Sonoran Fantasy or Coming of Age?” American Anthropologist 80:355–62.
♦ Beaumont, R., and O. Kharitidi. 1997. “The Secrets of Siberian Shamanism.” Kindred Spirit Quarterly 38:47–50.
♦ Bend, C., and Tanya Wiger. 1987. Birth of a Modern Shaman. Saint Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn.
♦ Blain, Jenny. 1998. “Presenting Constructions of Identity and Divinity: Ásatrú and Oracular Seidhr,” in S. Grills, ed., Fieldwork Methods: Accomplishing Ethnographic Research, 203–27. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
♦ ———. 1999a. “The Nine Worlds and the Tree: Sei∂r as Shamanistic Practice in Heathen Spirituality.” Spirit Talk 9 (Early Summer): 14–19.
♦ ———. 1999b. “Seidr as Shamanistic Practice: Reconstituting a Tradition of Ambiguity.” Shaman 7 (2): 99–121.
♦ ———. 2001. “Shamans, Stones, Authenticity and Appropriation: Contestations of Invention and Meaning,” in Robert J. Wallis and Kenneth Lymer, eds., A Permeability of Boundaries: New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore, 47–55. BAR International Series 936. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ ———. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic: Ecstasy and Neo-shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge.
♦ Blain, Jenny, and Robert J. Wallis. 2000. “The ‘Ergi’ Seidman: Contestations of Gender, Shamanism and Sexuality in Northern Religion Past and Present.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 15 (3): 395–411.
♦ ———. 2004a. “Sacred Sites, Contested Rites/Rights: Contemporary Pagan Engagements with the Past.” Journal of Material Culture 9 (3): 237–61.
♦ ———. 2004b. “Sites, Texts, Contexts and Inscriptions of Meaning: Investigating Pagan ‘Authenticities’ in a Text-Based Society.” Pomegranate 6 (2): 231–52.
♦ ———. 2006a. “Ritual Reflections, Practitioner Meanings: Disputing the Terminology of Neo-Shamanic ‘Performance.’” Journal of Ritual Studies 20 (1): 21–36.
♦ ———. 2006b. “Re-Presenting Spirit: Heathenry, New-Indigenes, and the Imaged Past,” in Ian A. Russel, ed., Image, Simulation and Meaning in Archaeology: On Archaeology and the Industrialisation and Marketing of Heritage and Tourism, 89–118. London: Springer.
♦ Brown, Michael F. 1997. The Channeling Zone: American Spirituality in an Anxious Age. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
♦ ———. 2003. Who Owns Native Culture? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
♦ Brown, Mick. 1998. “In February of This Year I Received a Curious and Completely Unexpected Invitation . . . Would I Like to Interview Carlos Castaneda?” Daily Telegraph Saturday Magazine (1 August): 38–42.
♦ Butler, Beverley. 1996. “The Tree, the Tower and the Shaman: The Material Culture of Resistance of the No M11 Link Roads Protest of Wanstead and Leytonstone, London.” Journal of Material Culture 1 (3): 337–63.
♦ Buxton, Simon. 2004. The Shamanic Way of the Bee. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions.
♦ Carroll, Phil J. 1987. Liber Null and Psychonaut: An Introduction to Chaos Magic. 2 vols. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser.
♦ Castaneda, Carlos. 1968. The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.
♦ ———. 1971. A Separate Reality. London: Bodley Head.
♦ ———. 1972. Journey to Ixtlan: The Lessons of Don Juan. New York: Simon & Schuster.
♦ ———. 1974. Tales of Power. New York: Penguin Books.
♦ Castaneda, Margaret R. 1997. A Magical Journey with Carlos Castaneda. Victoria, B.C.: Millennia Press.
♦ Chryssides, George D. 2001. Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
♦ Clifton, Chas S. 1989. “Armchair Shamanism: A Yankee Way of Knowledge,” in T. Schultz, ed., The Fringes of Reason: A Whole Earth Catalogue, 43–49. New York: Harmony Books.
♦ ———, ed. 1994. Witchcraft and Shamanism: Witchcraft Today, Book Three. Saint Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn.
♦ ———. 1995. “Training Your Soul Retriever.” www.chasclifton.com/columns/column13.html.
♦ Clifton, Chas S., and Graham Harvey, eds. 2004. The Paganism Reader. London: Routledge.
♦ Cowan, Tom. 1993. Fire in the Head: Shamanism and the Celtic Spirit. San Francisco: HarperCollins.
♦ Cox, James L. 2003. “Contemporary Shamanism in Global Contexts: ‘Religious’ Appeals to an Archaic Tradition?” Studies in World Christianity 9 (1): 69–87.
♦ Crowley, Aleister. 1906. The Book of the Law. Reprinted in Chas S. Clifton and Graham Harvey, eds., The Paganism Reader (London: Routledge, 2004), 67–79.
♦ ———. 1929. Moonchild. London: Mandrake Press.
♦ ———. 1973. Magick. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
♦ Cruden, Loren. 1995. Coyote’s Council Fire: Contemporary Shamans on Race, Gender, and Community. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books.
♦ de Mille, Richard. 1976. Castaneda’s Journey: The Power and the Allegory. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Capra Press.
♦ ———, ed. 1980. The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Ross-Erikson.
♦ Deloria, Philip J. 1998. Playing Indian. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
♦ Douglas, Mary. 1980. “The Authenticity of Castaneda,” in Richard de Mille, ed., The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies, 25–32. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Ross-Erikson.
♦ Drury, Nevill. 1982. The Shaman and the Magician: Journeys between the Worlds. London: Routledge.
♦ ———. 1989. The Elements of Shamanism. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ ———. 1993. Pan’s Daughter: The Magical World of Rosaleen Norton. Oxford, England: Mandrake.
♦ ———. 2003. Magic and Witchcraft: From Shamanism to the Technopagans. London: Thames & Hudson.
♦ Fikes, Jay C. 1993. Carlos Castaneda, Academic Opportunism and the Psychedelic Sixties. Victoria, B.C.: Millennia Press.
♦ Fries, Jan. 1992. Visual Magick: A Manual of Freestyle Shamanism. Oxford, England: Mandrake.
♦ ———. 1993. Helrunar: A Manual of Rune Magic. Oxford, England: Mandrake.
♦ ———. 1996. Seidways: Shaking, Swaying and Serpent Mysteries. Oxford, England: Mandrake.
♦ ———. 2001. Cauldron of the Gods: Manual of Celtic Magick. Oxford, England: Mandrake.
♦ Geertz, Armin W. 1983. “Book of the Hopi: The Hopi’s Book?” Anthropos 78:547–56.
♦ ———. 1993. “Archaic Ontology and White Shamanism.” Religion 23:369–72.
♦ ———. 1994. The Invention of Prophecy: Continuity and Meaning in Hopi Indian Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press.
♦ Gibson, William. 1984. Neuromancer. London: Victor Gollancz.
♦ Glass-Coffin, B. 1994. “Viewpoint: Anthropology, Shamanism, and the ‘New Age.’” Chronicle of Higher Education (June 15): A48.
♦ Goodman, Felicitas D. 1986. “Body Posture and the Religious Altered State of Consciousness: An Experimental Investigation.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 26 (3): 81–118.
♦ ———. 1988. “Shamanic Trance Postures,” in Gary Doore, ed., Shaman’s Path: Healing, Personal Growth, and Empowerment, 53–61. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ ———. 1989. “The Neurophysiology of Shamanic Ecstasy,” in Mihály Hoppál and Otto von Sadovszky, eds., Shamanism Past and Present (Part 2), 377–79. Budapest: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Fullerton, Calif.: International Society for Trans-Oceanic Research.
♦ ———. 1990. Where the Spirits Ride the Wind: Trance Journeys and Other Ecstatic Experiences. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
♦ Grant, Kenneth. 1973. Aleister Crowley and the Hidden God. London: Frederick Muller.
♦ ———. 1975. Cults of the Shadow. London: Frederick Muller.
♦ ———. 1980. Outside the Circles of Time. London: Frederick Muller.
♦ ———. 1991 [1972]. The Magical Revival. London: Skoob Books.
♦ Grant, Kenneth, and Steffi Grant. 1998. Zos Speaks: Encounters with Austin Osman Spare. London: Fulgur.
♦ Green, Rayna. 1988. “The Tribe Called Wannabee.” Folklore 99 (1): 30–55.
♦ Greenwood, Susan. 2000. Magic, Witchcraft and the Otherworld. Oxford: Berg.
♦ ———. 2005. The Nature of Magic: An Anthropology of Consciousness. Oxford: Berg.
♦ Grimaldi, Susan. 1996. “Learning from a Master: An Ulchi Shaman Teaches in America.” Shamanism 9 (2): 7–11.
♦ ———. 1997. “Open Dialogue: Observations on Daniel Noel’s The Soul of Shamanism—A Defense of Contemporary Shamanism and Michael Harner.” Shaman’s Drum 46:4–9.
♦ Gyrus Orbitalis. 2000. “On Prehistoric Rock Art and Psychedelic Experiences.” dreamflesh.com/essays/rockpsych.
♦ Harner, Michael. 1988a. “Shamanic Counseling,” in Gary Doore, ed., Shaman’s Path: Healing, Personal Growth, and Empowerment, 179–87. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ ———. 1988b. “What Is a Shaman?” in Gary Doore, ed., Shaman’s Path: Healing, Personal Growth, and Empowerment, 7–15. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ ———. 1990 [1980]. The Way of the Shaman. London: HarperCollins.
♦ ———. 1994. “The Foundation’s Expedition to Tuva.” Shamanism 7 (1): 1–2.
♦ Harvey, Graham. 1995. “Heathenism: A North European Pagan Tradition,” in Graham Harvey and Charlotte Hardman, eds., Paganism Today: Wiccans, Druids, the Goddess and Ancient Earth Traditions for the Twenty-First Century, 49–64. London: Thorsons.
♦ ———. 1997. Listening People, Speaking Earth: Contemporary Paganism. London: Hurst; Adelaide: Wakefield; New York: New York University Press (under the title Contemporary Paganism: Listening People, Speaking Earth).
♦ ———. 1998. “Shamanism in Britain Today.” Performance ResearchOn Ritual’ 3 (3): 16–24.
♦ Hobson, Geary. 1978. “The Rise of the White Shaman as a New Version of Cultural Imperialism,” in Geary Hobson, The Remembered Earth, 100–108. Albuquerque, N.M.: Red Earth Press.
♦ Hoppál, Mihály. 1996. “Shamanism in a Postmodern Age.” Folklore, haldjas.folklore.ee/folklore/vol2/hoppla.htm.
♦ Horwitz, Jonathan. 1989. “On Experiential Shamanic Journeying,” in Mihály Hoppál and Otto von Sadovszky, eds., Shamanism Past and Present (Part 2), 373–76. Budapest: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Fullerton, Calif.: International Society for Trans-Oceanic Research.
♦ ———. 1995. “The Absence of ‘Performance’ in the Shamanic Rite: Shamanic Rites Seen from a Shamanic Perspective II,” in Tae-Gon Kim and Mihály Hoppál, eds., Shamanism in Performing Arts, 231–42. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Høst, Annette. 1999. Exploring Seidhr: A Practical Study of the Seidhr Ritual. Paper presented at “Religious Practices and Beliefs in the North Atlantic Area” seminar, Århus University.
♦ ———. 2001. “What’s in a Name? Neo Shamanism, Core Shamanism, Urban Shamanism, Modern Shamanism, or What?” Spirit Talk 14:1–4.
♦ Howard, Michael. 1985. The Wisdom of the Runes. London: Rider.
♦ Hungry Wolf, Adolf. 1973. The Good Medicine Book. New York: Warner Paperback Library.
♦ Hunt, Dave, and T. A. McMahon. 1988. America, the Sorcerer’s New Apprentice: The Rise of New Age Shamanism. Eugene, Ore.: Harvest House.
♦ Hutton, Ronald. 1991. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
♦ ———. 1996. “Introduction: Who Possesses the Past?” in Philip Carr-Gomm, ed., The Druid Renaissance, 17–34. London: Thorsons.
♦ ———. 1999. The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
♦ ———. 2002. Shamans: Siberian Spirituality and the Western Imagination. London: Hambledon.
♦ Ingerman, Sandra. 1991. Soul Retrieval: Mending the Fragmented Self. San Franciso: HarperCollins.
♦ Jakobsen, Merete Demant. 1999. Shamanism: Traditional and Contemporary Approaches to the Mastery of Spirits and Healing. Oxford, England: Berghahn Books.
♦ Jocks, Christopher R. 1996. “Spirituality for Sale: Sacred Knowledge in the Consumer Age.” American Indian Quarterly 20 (3): 415–31.
♦ Johnson, Nathan J., and Robert J. Wallis. 2005. Galdrbok: Practical Heathen Runecraft, Shamanism and Magic. London: Wykeham Press.
♦ Johnson, Paul C. 1995. “Shamanism from Ecuador to Chicago: A Case Study in Ritual Appropriation.” Religion 25:163–78.
♦ Jones, Leslie Ellen. 1994. “The Emergence of the Druid as Celtic Shaman.” Folklore in Use 2:131–42.
♦ ———. 1998. Druid, Shaman, Priest: Metaphors of Celtic Paganism. Enfield Lock, England: Hisarlik Press.
♦ Joralemon, Donald. 1990. “The Selling of the Shaman and the Problem of Informant Legitimacy.” Journal of Anthropological Research 46 (2): 105–18.
♦ Kehoe, Alice B. 1990. “Primal Gaia: Primitivists and Plastic Medicine Men,” in James Clifton, ed., The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies, 193–209. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction.
♦ ———. 2000. Shamans and Religion: An Anthropological Exploration in Critical Thinking. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press.
♦ Kelly, Karen. 1997. “Blessing of the Reindeer Camps.” Sacred Hoop 18:24–25.
♦ ———. 1999. “Close to Nature: An Interview with Annette Høst.” Spirit Talk 9 (Early Summer): 5–9.
♦ Kharitidi, Olga. 1997. Entering the Circle: Ancient Secrets of Siberian Shamanism Discovered by a Russian Psychiatrist. London: Thorsons.
♦ King, Serge Kahili. 1990. Urban Shaman: A Handbook for Personal and Planetary Transformation Based on the Hawaiian Way of the Adventurer. New York: Simon & Schuster.
♦ ———. 2003. Kahuna Healing. Stuttgart: Lüchow Verlag.
♦ Leary, Timothy. 1970. The Politics of Ecstasy. St. Albans, England: Paladin. Leary, Timothy, Ralph Metzner, and Richard Alpert. 1964. The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books.
♦ Lee, Matt. 2003. “Memories of a Sorcerer: Notes on Gilles Deleuze-Felix Guattari, Austin Osman Spare and Anomalous Sorceries.” Journal for the Academic Study of Magic 1:102–30.
♦ Letcher, Andy. 2001. “The Scouring of the Shire: Fairies, Trolls and Pixies in Eco-Protest Culture.” Folklore 112:147–61.
♦ Lindquist, Galina. 1997. Shamanic Performance on the Urban Scene: NeoShamanism in Contemporary Sweden. Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology 39. Stockholm: University of Stockholm.
♦ Linzie, Bil. 1999. “Seething: Where Does a Sei∂rman Go?” Spirit Talk 9 (Early Summer): 27–29.
♦ MacEowen, Frank H. 1998. “Rekindling the Gaelic Hearthways of Oran Mor.” Shaman’s Drum 49 (Summer): 32–39.
♦ ———. 2004. The Spiral of Memory and Belonging: A Celtic Path of Soul and Kinship. Novato, Calif.: New World Library.
♦ MacLellan, Gordon. 1994. Small Acts of Magic. Manchester, England: Creeping Toad.
♦ ———. 1995. “Dancing on the Edge: Shamanism in Modern Britain,” in Graham Harvey and Charlotte Hardman, eds., Paganism Today: Wiccans, Druids, the Goddess and Ancient Earth Traditions for the Twenty-First Century, 138–48. London: Thorsons.
♦ ———. 1996. Talking to the Earth. Chieveley, England: Capall Bann.
♦ ———. 1997. Sacred Animals. Chieveley, England: Capall Bann.
♦ ———. 1998. “A Sense of Wonder.” Performance ResearchOn Ritual’ 3 (3): 60–63.
♦ ———. 1999. Shamanism. London: Piatkus.
♦ Matson, Erin R. 1980. “De Mille Does Not Exist,” in Richard de Mille, ed., The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies, 174–77. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Ross-Erikson.
♦ Matthews, Caitlin. 1995. Singing the Soul Back Home: Shamanism in Daily Life. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ ———. 1996. “Following the Awen—Celtic Shamanism and the Druid Path in the Modern World,” in Philip Carr-Gomm, ed., The Druid Renaissance, 223–36. London: Thorsons.
♦ ———. 1997. “Midwifing the Soul.” Sacred Hoop 19:14–17.
♦ Matthews, John. 1991a. The Celtic Shaman: A Handbook. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ ———. 1991b. The Song of Taliesin: Stories and Poems from the Books of Broceliande. London: Aquarian.
♦ ———. 1991c. Taliesin: Shamanism and the Bardic Mysteries in Britain and Ireland. London: Aquarian.
♦ McKenna, Terence. 1992. Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge: A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution. New York: Bantam.
♦ Meadows, Kenneth. 1989. Earth Medicine: A Shamanic Way to Self-Discovery. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ ———. 1991. Shamanic Experience: A Practical Guide to Contemporary Shamanism. London: Element Books.
♦ ———. 1996. Rune Power. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ Metzner, Ralph. 1994. The Well of Remembrance: Rediscovering the Earth Wisdom Myths of Northern Europe. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ Moore, J. H. 1973. “Book Review: S. Hyemeyohsts Seven Arrows.” American Anthropologist 75:1040–42.
♦ Murphy, R. 1981. “Book Review: M. Harner The Way of the Shaman.” American Anthropologist 83:714–17.
♦ Naddair, Kaledon. 1990. “Pictish and Keltic Shamanism,” in Prudence Jones and Caitlin Matthews, eds., Voices from the Circle: The Heritage of Western Paganism, 93–108. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian Press.
♦ Noel, Daniel C., ed. 1976. Seeing Castaneda: Reactions to theDon JuanWritings of Carlos Castaneda. New York: Capricorn Books.
♦ ———. 1990. Paths to the Power of Myth: Joseph Campbell and the Study of Religion. New York: Crossroad.
♦ ———. 1997. The Soul of Shamanism: Western Fantasies, Imaginal Realities. New York: Continuum.
♦ ———. 1998. “Open Dialogue: A Response to Susan Grimaldi’s critique of The Soul of Shamanism.” Shaman’s Drum 48:4–8.
♦ Olson, Alan M. 1978. “From Shaman to Mystic: An Interpretation of the Castaneda Quartet.” Soundings 1:47–66.
♦ Paxson, Diana L. 1992. The Seid Project: A Report on Experiences and Findings. Hrafnar Monograph \#1 (unpublished).
♦ ———. 1993. “Heide: Witch-Goddess of the North,” Sagewoman, Fall 1993. Available at www.hrafnar.org/goddesses/heide.html.
♦ ———. 1997. “The Return of the Volva: Recovering the Practice of Seidh.” Available at www.seidh.org/articles/seidh.html.
♦ ———. 1998. “‘This Thou Dost Know . . .’: Oracles in the Northern Tradition.” Idunna: A Journal of Northern Tradition, n.p.
♦ ———. 1999. “Seeing for the People: Working Oracular Sei∂r in the Pagan Community.” Spirit Talk 9 (Early Summer): 10–13.
♦ Pearce, Joseph C. 1976. “Don Juan and Jesus,” in Daniel C. Noel, ed., Seeing Castaneda: Reactions to theDon JuanWritings of Carlos Castaneda, 191–219. New York: Capricorn Books.
♦ Pedersen, M. 1999. “The Return of the Sei∂r: Experiences of Sei∂r in Modern Denmark.” Spirit Talk 9 (Early Summer): 25–27.
♦ Pennick, Nigel. 1989. Practical Magic in the Northern Tradition. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian.
♦ ———. 1992. Rune Magic: The History and Practice of Ancient Runic Traditions. London: Thorsons.
♦ ———. 1999. The Complete Illustrated Guide to Runes. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.
♦ Pennick, Nigel, and Nigel Jackson. 1992. The Celtic Oracle: A Complete Guide to Using the Cards. London: Aquarian.
♦ Perera, Sylvia B. 1981. Descent to the Goddess: A Way of Initiation for Women. Toronto: Inner City Books.
♦ Pilch, John J. 2002. “Altered States of Consciousness in the Synoptics,” in Wolfgang Stegemann, Bruce J. Malina, and Gerd Theissen, eds., The Social Setting of Jesus and the Gospels, 103–16. Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress.
♦ Pinchbeck, Daniel. 2002. Breaking Open the Head: A Visionary Journey from Cynicism to Shamanism. London: Flamingo.
♦ Pitts, Mike. 1996. “The Vicar’s Dewpond, the National Trust and the Rise of Paganism,” in David Morgan, Peter Salway, and David Thackray, eds., The Remains of Distant Times: Archaeology and the National Trust, 116–31. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Boydell Press for the Society of Antiquaries of London and the National Trust.
♦ Plotkin, Bill. 2003. Soulcraft: Crossing into the Mysteries of Nature and Psyche. Novato, Calif.: New World Library.
♦ Plotkin, Mark J. 1994. Tales of a Shaman’s Apprentice. New York: Penguin.
♦ Reid-Wolfe, Adrian. 1997. “Teach an Alais.” Sacred Hoop 18:28–29.
♦ Rose, Wendy. 1978. “An Old-Time Indian Attack Conducted in Two Parts: Part One: Imitation ‘Indian’ Poems; Part Two: Gary Snyder’s Turtle Island,” in Geary Hobson, ed., Remembered Earth: An Anthology of Contemporary Native American Literature, 211–16. Albuquerque, N.M.: Red Earth Press.
♦ ———. 1984. “Just What’s All This Fuss about Whiteshamanism, Anyway?” in Bo Schöler, ed., Coyote Was Here: Essays on Contemporary Native American Literary and Political Mobilization, 13–24. Aarhus, Norway: University of Aarhus.
♦ ———. 1992. “The Great Pretenders: Further Reflections on Whiteshamanism,” in M. Annette Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance, 403–21. Boston: South End.
♦ Roth, Gabriella. 1990. Maps to Ecstasy: Teachings of an Urban Shaman. Wellingborough, England: Crucible.
♦ ———. 1997. Sweat Your Prayers: Movement as a Spiritual Practice. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.
♦ Rothenberg, Jerome, ed. 1985. Technicians of the Sacred: A Range of Poetry from Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Berkeley: University of California Press.
♦ Runic John. 2004. The Book of Seidr: The Native English and Northern European Shamanic Tradition. Chieveley, England: Capall Bann.
♦ Rutherford, Leo. 1993. “To All Races and Colours: About the Release of the Ancient Teachings.” Sacred Hoop 1:8–9.
♦ ———. 1996. Principles of Shamanism. London: Thorsons.
♦ Santana, Carlos. 2002. Shaman. Arista CD. B00006L8G8.
♦ Shallcrass, Philip. 1998. “A Priest of the Goddess,” in Joanne Pearson, Richard H. Roberts, and Geoffrey Samuel, eds., Nature Religion Today: Paganism in the Modern World, 157–69. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
♦ ———. 2000. Druidry. London: Piaktis.
♦ Smith, Andy. 1994. “For All Those Who Were Indian in a Former Life,” in Carol J. Adams, ed., Ecofeminism and the Sacred, 168–71. New York: Continuum.
♦ Spare, Austin O. 1905. Earth Inferno. Privately published.
♦ ———. 1907. A Book of Satyrs. London: Co-operative Printings Society.
♦ ———. 1909–13. The Book of Pleasure. London: Co-operative Printing Society.
♦ ———. 1921. The Focus of Life: The Mutterings of AOS. London: Morland Press.
♦ ———. 1993. From the Inferno to Zos: The Writings and Images of Austin Osman Spare. Vol. 1. Seattle: First Impressions.
♦ Spicer, Edward. 1969. “Review of C. Castaneda 1968. The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.” American Anthropologist 71 (2): 320–22.
♦ Stafford, Greg. 1990. “The Medicine Circle of Turtle Island,” in Prudence Jones and Caitlin Matthews, eds., Voices from the Circle: The Heritage of Western Paganism, 83–92. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian.
♦ Stone, Alby. 1998. Straight Track, Crooked Road: Leys, Spirit Paths and Shamanism. Loughborough, United Kingdom: Heart of Albion Press.
♦ Storm, Hyemeyohsts. 1972. Seven Arrows. New York: Ballantine.
♦ Stuckrad, Kocku von. 2002. “Reenchanting Nature: Modern Western Shamanism and Nineteenth-Century Thought.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 70 (4): 771–99.
♦ Tisdall, Caroline. 1976. Joseph BeuysCoyote. Munich: Schirmer Mosel.
♦ ———. 1979. Joseph Beuys. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; London: Thames & Hudson.
♦ ———. 1998. Joseph BeuysWe Go This Way. London: Violette Editions.
♦ Torrey, E. Fuller. 1974. “Spiritualists and Shamans as Psychotherapists: An Account of Original Anthropological Sin,” in Irving I. Zaretsky and Mark P. Leone, eds., Religious Movements in Contemporary America, 330–37. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
♦ Townsend, Joan. 1988. “Neo-shamanism and the Modern Mystical Movement,” in Gary Doore, ed., Shaman’s Path: Healing, Personal Growth and Empowerment, 73–83. Boston: Shambhala.
♦ ———. 1997. “Core Shaman and Neopagan Leaders of the Mystical Movement in Contemporary Society.” Dialogue and Alliance 13 (1): 100–22.
♦ ———. 1999. “Western Contemporary Core and Neo-shamanism and the Interpenetration with Indigenous Societies.” Proceedings of the International CongressShamanism and Other Indigenous Spiritual Beliefs and Practices” 5 (2): 223–31.
♦ ———. 2005. “Individualist Religious Movements: Core and Neo-shamanism.” Anthropology of Consciousness 15 (1): 1–9.
♦ Trubshaw, Bob. 2005. Sacred Places: Prehistory and Popular Imagination. Loughborough, United Kingdom: Heart of Albion Press.
♦ Vitebsky, Piers. 1995a. “From Cosmology to Environmentalism: Shamanism as Local Knowledge in a Global Setting,” in Richard Fardon, ed., Counterworks: Managing the Diversity of Knowledge, 182–203. London: Routledge. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 276–98.
♦ ———. 1995b. The Shaman. London: Macmillan.
♦ Wallis, Robert J. 1999. “Altered States, Conflicting Cultures: Shamans, Neoshamans and Academics.” Anthropology of Consciousness 10 (2–3): 41–49.
♦ ———. 2000. “Queer Shamans: Autoarchaeology and Neo-shamanism.” World Archaeology 32 (2): 251–61.
♦ ———. 2001. “Waking the Ancestors: Neo-shamanism and Archaeology,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 213–30. London: Routledge. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 402–23.
♦ ———. 2003. Shamans/Neo-Shamans: Ecstasy, Alternative Archaeology and Contemporary Pagans. London: Routledge.
♦ ———. 2004. “Between the Worlds: Autoarchaeology and neo-Shamans,” in Jenny Blain, Douglas Ezzy, and Graham Harvey, eds., Researching Paganisms: Religious Experiences and Academic Methodologies, 191–215. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira.
♦ Wallis, Robert J., and Jenny Blain. 2003. “Sites, Sacredness, and Stories: Interactions of Archaeology and Contemporary Paganism.” Folklore 114 (3): 307–21.
♦ Wilk, S. 1980. “Don Juan on Balance,” in Richard de Mille, ed., The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies, 154–57. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Ross-Erikson.
♦ Willis, Roy. 1994. “Narrative: New Shamanism.” Anthropology Today 10 (6): 16–18.
♦ Wood, Nicholas. 1998. “News from the Hoop: Carlos Castaneda— 1925–1998.” Sacred Hoop 22:8.
♦ Woodman, Justin. 1998. “Conference Review of Shamanism in Contemporary Society, Department of Religious Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 23–26 June 1998.” Anthropology Today 14 (6): 23–24. York, Michael. 2003. Historical Dictionary of New Age Movements. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.
♦ Zinser, Hartmut. 1987. “‘Schamanismus im New Age’: Zur Wiederkehr Schamanistischer Praktiken und Seancen in Europa.” Zeitschrift fur Religions und Geistes-Geschichte 39 (1): 319–27.
Performance
♦ Balzer, Marjorie M. 1995. “The Poetry of Shamanism,” in Tae-Gon Kim and Mihály Hoppál, eds., Shamanism in Performing Arts, 171–87. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. Reprinted in Graham Harvey, ed., Shamanism: A Reader (London: Routledge, 2003), 307–23.
♦ Blain, Jenny, and Robert J. Wallis. 2006a. “Ritual Reflections, Practitioner Meanings: Disputing the Terminology of Neo-Shamanic ‘Performance.’” Journal of Ritual Studies 20 (1): 21–36.
♦ Bogoras, Waldemar. 1972 [1958]. “Shamanic Performance in the Inner Room,” in William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt, eds., Reader in Comparative Religion, 382–87. New York: Harper & Row.
♦ Coates, Marcus. 2005. Journey to the Lower World. Edited by Alec Finlay. Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Morning Star Platform Projects.
♦ Csordas, Thomas J. 1996. “Imaginal Performance and Memory in Ritual Healing,” in Carol Laderman and Marina Roseman, eds., The Performance of Healing, 91–114. London: Routledge.
♦ Flaherty, Gloria. 1988. “The Performing Artist as the Shaman of Higher Civilisation.” Modern Language 103 (3): 519–39.
♦ Harvey, Graham. 1998. “Shamanism in Britain Today.” Performance ResearchOn Ritual’ 3 (3): 16–24.
♦ Horwitz, Jonathan. 1995. “The Absence of ‘Performance’ in the Shamanic Rite: Shamanic Rites Seen from a Shamanic Perspective II,” in Mihály Hoppál and Tae-Gon Kim, eds., Shamanism in Performing Arts, 231–42. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Kim, Tae-Gon, and Mihály Hoppál, eds. 1995. Shamanism in Performing Arts. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Laderman, Carol. 1991. Taming the Wind of Desire: Psychology, Medicine, and Aesthetics in Malay Shamanistic Performance. Berkeley: University of California Press.
♦ Lindquist, Galina. 1997. Shamanic Performance on the Urban Scene: NeoShamanism in Contemporary Sweden. Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology 39. Stockholm: University of Stockholm.
♦ MacLellan, Gordon. 1998. “A Sense of Wonder.” Performance ResearchOn Ritual’ 3 (3): 60–63.
♦ Schieffelin, Edward. 1996. “On Failure in Performance: Throwing the Medium out of the Séance,” in Carol Laderman and Marina Roseman, eds., The Performance of Healing, 59–90. London: Routledge.
♦ ———. 1998. “Problematising Performance,” in Felicia Hughes-Freeland, ed., Ritual, Performance, Media, 194–207. London: Routledge.
Rock Art
♦ Bahn, Paul G. 1997. “Membrane and Numb Brain: A Close Look at a Recent Claim for Shamanism in Palaeolithic Art.” Rock Art Research 14 (1): 62–68.
♦ ———. 1998. “Stumbling in the Footsteps of St Thomas.” British Archaeology (February): 18.
♦ Bradley, Richard. 1997. Signing the Land: Rock Art and the Prehistory of Atlantic Europe. London: Routledge.
♦ Chippindale, Christopher, Benjamin Smith, and Paul S. C. Taçon. 2000. “Visions of Dynamic Power: Archaic Rock-Paintings, Altered States of Consciousness and ‘Clever Men’ in Western Arnhem Land (NT), Australia.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 10 (1): 63–101.
♦ Chippindale, Christopher, and Paul S. C. Taçon, eds. 1998. The Archaeology of Rock-Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
♦ Clottes, Jean, and J. David Lewis-Williams. 1998. The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and Magic in the Painted Caves. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
♦ Davenport, Demorest, and Michael A. Jochim. 1988. “The Scene in the Shaft at Lascaux.” Antiquity 62:559–62.
♦ Devereux, Paul. 1992. Shamanism and the Mystery Lines: Ley Lines, Spirit Paths, Shape-Shifting and Out-of-Body-Travel. London: Quantum.
♦ ———. 1997. The Long Trip: A Prehistory of Psychedelia. New York: Arkana.
♦ ———. 2001. “Did Ancient Shamanism Leave a Monumental Record on the Land as Well as in Rock Art?” in Robert J. Wallis and Kenneth Lymer, eds., A Permeability of Boundaries? New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore, BAR International Series 936, 1–7. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
♦ Devlet, Ekaterina. 2001. “Rock Art and the Material Culture of Siberian and Central Asian Shamanism,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 43–55. London: Routledge.
♦ Dowson, Thomas A. 1989. “Dots and Dashes: Cracking the Entoptic Code in Bushman Rock Art.” South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 6:84–94.
♦ ———. 1994a. “Hunter-Gatherers, Traders, and Slaves: The ‘Mfecane’ Impact on Bushmen, Their Ritual and Art,” in Carolyn Hamilton, ed., The Mfecane Aftermath: Reconstructive Debates in South Africa’s History, 51–70. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press; Pietermaritzberg: Natal University Press.
♦ ———. 1994b. “Reading Art, Writing History: Rock Art and Social Change in Southern Africa.” World Archaeology 25 (3): 332–45.
♦ ———. 1998a. “Like People in Prehistory.” World Archaeology 29 (3): 333–43.
♦ ———. 1998b. “Rock Art: Handmaiden to Studies of Cognitive Evolution,” in Colin Renfrew and Chris Scarre, eds., Cognition and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Symbolic Storage, 67–76. Cambridge, England: McDonald Institute Monographs.
♦ ———. 1999a. “Interpretation in Rock Art Research: A Crisis in Confidence.” Ley Hunter 133:21–23.
♦ ———. 1999b. “Rock Art and Shamanism: A Methodological Impasse,” in Andrej
♦ Rozwadowski, Maria M. Kośko, and Thomas A. Dowson, eds., Rock Art, Shamanism and Central Asia: Discussions of Relations (in Polish), 39–56. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Academickie.
♦ Dowson, Thomas, and J. David Lewis-Williams, eds. 1994. Contested Images: Diversity in Southern African Rock Art Research. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
♦ Dowson, Thomas A., and Martin Porr. 2001. “Special Objects—Special Creatures: Shamanistic Imagery and the Aurignacian Art of South-west Germany,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 165–77. London: Routledge.
♦ Dronfield, Jeremy. 1996. “Entering Alternative Realities: Cognition, Art and Architecture in Irish Passage Tombs.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6 (1): 37–72.
♦ Francfort, Henri-Paul, and Roberte N. Hamayon, eds. 2001. The Concept of Shamanism: Uses and Abuses. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
♦ Gyrus Orbitalis. 2000. “On Prehistoric Rock Art and Psychedelic Experiences.” dreamflesh.com/essays/rockpsych.
♦ Lewis-Williams, David. 2002. The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art. London: Thames and Hudson.
♦ Lewis-Williams, J. David. 1975. “The Drakensberg Rock Paintings as an Expression of Religious Thought,” in E. Anati, ed., Les réligions de la préhistoire, 413–26. Capo di Ponte, Brescia, Italy: Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici.
♦ ———. 1981. Believing and Seeing: Symbolic Meanings in Southern San Rock Paintings. London: Academic Press.
♦ ———. 1991. “Wrestling with Analogy: A Problem in Upper Palaeolithic Art Research.” Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 57 (1): 149–62.
♦ ———. 1992. “Ethnographic Evidence Relating to ‘Trance’ and ‘Shamans’ among Northern and Southern Bushmen.” South African Archaeological Bulletin 47:56–60.
♦ ———. 1998. “Quanto? The Issue of ‘Many Meanings’ in Southern African San Rock Art Research.” South African Archaeological Bulletin 53:86–97.
♦ Lewis-Williams, J. David, and Thomas A. Dowson. 1988. “The Signs of All Times: Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art.” Current Anthropology 29 (2): 201–45.
♦ ———. 1993. “On Vision and Power in the Neolithic: Evidence from the Decorated Monuments.” Current Anthropology 34:55–65.
♦ ———. 1999 [1989]. Images of Power: Understanding Bushman Rock Art. Johannesburg: Southern Book Publishers.
♦ Lymer, Kenneth. 2002. “The Deer Petroglyphs of Arpauzen, South Kazakhstan,” in Andrej Rozwadowski and Maria M. Kośko, eds., Spirits and Stones: Shamanism and Rock Art in Central Asia and Siberia, 80–95. Poznań, Poland: Instytut Wschodni.
♦ Okladnikov, A. P., and V. D. Zaporozhskaya. 1972. Petroglify Srendei Leny [Petroglyphs of the Middle Lena]. Leningrad: Nauka.
♦ Patterson, Carol. 1998. “Seeking Power at Willow Creek Cave, Northern California.” Anthropology of Consciousness 9 (1): 38–49.
♦ Price, Neil S., ed. 2001. The Archaeology of Shamanism. London: Routledge.
♦ Rozwadowski, Andrej. 2001. “Sun Gods or Shamans? Interpreting the ‘Solar- Headed’ Petroglyphs of Central Asia,” in Neil Price, ed., The Archaeology of Shamanism, 65–86. London: Routledge.
♦ Rozwadowski, Andrej, and Maria M. Kośko, eds. 2002. Spirits and Stones: Shamanism and Rock Art in Central Asia and Siberia. Poznań, Poland: Instytut Wschodni.
♦ Sales, Kim. 1992. “Ascent to the Sky: A Shamanic Initiatory Engraving from the Burrup Peninsula, Northwest Western Australia.” Archaeology Oceania 27:22–35.
♦ Solomon, Anne. 2000. “On Different Approaches to San Rock Art.” South African Archaeological Bulletin 55:77–78.
♦ Wallis, Robert J. 2002. “The Bwili or ‘Flying Tricksters’ of Malakula: A Critical Discussion of Recent Debates on Rock Art, Ethnography and Shamanisms.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 8 (4): 735–60.
♦ ———. 2004. “Shamanism and Art,” in Mariko N. Walter and Eva N. Fridman, eds., Shamanism: An Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices, and Culture, 1:21–28. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
♦ Whitley, David. S. 1992. “Shamanism and Rock Art in Far Western North America.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2:89–113.
♦ ———. 2000. The Art of the Shaman: Rock Art of California. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

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